I have a question about planning and designing computer programs.

Can someone tell me how someone going about a large program would go about this. There would be allot of classes, functions, modules etc. I want to learn how to do this more professionally myself but I don't know how. Is there a technique using something like UML or type of software or syntax in which programs are designed on paper or on screen etc?

Any help on this topic would be very much appreciated.

Thenks....:) :) :)

]]>If the message was intercepted couldnt the attacker just get the public key from withing the certificate?

]]>I am really trying to find out where I could go to get the training need to learn the skills neccessary to pass the MCSD Exams:480,486,and 487. I live in Chicago, IL and I prefer a traditional class-room settings that spans 4-8 weeks, as opposed to the 5 day crash courses offered at training centers like New Horizons. Does anyone even know anyone who has successfully passed the MCSD exams? I am a recent graduate who is just trying to impove his resume to land a job.

I would appreciate any helpfull response.

Thanks,

Alex

Consider a language defined by L={AnBm | n,m >= 0} and also that it is a regular language.

How is it possible to draw its DFA n NFA ? ]]>

Would anyone know what "High-order overflow" means?

]]>```
I need to know if I'm doing this right. I just recently started Psuedocoding and I'm still confused about it. If I was to test this code would it work?
Declare Employees[100] as String
Declare Salaries[100] as Integer
Declare K as Integer
Declare Average as Integer
Set Sum = 0
Set K = 1
Set Average = 0
Write "Enter Total Employee Count."
Input Employees
FOR K = 1 Add 1 to Average Then
Write "Enter the Employee Name and salary"
Input Name, Salary
Set Employees[K]=Name
Set Salaries[K]=Salary
Set Sum=Sum+Salary
END FOR
Set Average=Sum/Average
Set Below = 0
Set Above = 0
If K = Add 1 to Average Then
If Salaries=[K] < Average Then
Set Below = Below + 1
End If
If Salaries=[K] > Average Then
Set Above = Above + 1
End If
END If
```

]]>**The Beautiful Equation**

OK I agree, it's a bit heavy to begin with but towards the end we will see why the above equation is, in my opinion, of great importance to the field of AI. But first let's go back in time to ancient Greece.

**Ancient Greece**

The Greeks dreamt about artificial intelligence, playing God if you will, they probably weren't the first. But the idea of mechanically creating an intelligence to rival our own has always been on the frontier of science. And it is no surprise why... the human brain is an enigma, an amazing feat of biological engineering, capable of making complicated deductions and understanding subtle nuances. Clearly, no **hard coded** computer program can rival such mastery.

So our immediate question is... how do we recreate this? Do we follow nature as an example?

**Mankind masters flight**

Mankind has always taken their inspiration from nature. For a long time mankind was hellbent on being able to fly. In Greek mythology Icaraus forges wings out of wax to give himself the ability to fly. It is just myth of course, but man's idea to emulate nature seems a good starting point. Many of the first flying contraptions devised tried to copy the flight of a bird by copying the flapping of the wings to generate lift. But no such devices ever succeeded. Mankinds first powered flight came from aerodynamic wings that were FIXED but provide thrust to create lift.

So we could say flight was achieved my not completely copying nature but rather taking ideas from it and changing a few things along the way.

Should the quest for AI then try to COMPLETELY copy how the brain works completely? Only time can answer this question. But I believe it is a damn good place to start.

Next we are going to explore the brain.

**The Brain**

The brain consists of literally millions of neurons. Each neuron are inter connected with synapses. These pass electrical signals to the neurons. Now an individual neuron by itself is pretty useless. Learning occurs by the collective information of all the neurons in the brain.

Basically, when a neuron fires it needs to be excited and once it reaches a threshold it fires an electrical signal. Think of it like a reward system. If the dog behaves it gets a treat. So in the same way when a neuron is learning, if the desired action is considered good enough (i.e it goes beyond some threshold value) it fires.

Now we can come back to our equation written at the beginning. All it does is describe the graph of a spiking neuron. The most important bit is that 'w' describes the 'weight' and in all neural networks **learning occurs by continually adjusting the weights.**

The downward slope of the graph is described by the exponentional function.

**How do we replicate the spiking neuron graph?**

So we have the graph of a neuron. Our next question is how might we replicate this? First we might think of this in software terms. You might write a program in say 'java' or 'C#' to replicate the graph. Now software is great but it is slow. What if we cloned the graph directly with hardware. Wouldn't that be faster?

**Enter the FPGA**

So what is an 'FPGA.' It is a 'Field programmable gate array.' Think of it like a bunch of logic gates that can be configured to how you like.

**Why use an FPGA**

Why? It's simple. FPGAs are fully Parallel. No shared resources mean no serial dependencies. Single Clock for cycle Numerical Iteration. One clock cycle equals one numerical iteration.

In short it is bloody fast and works much like a neuron. In parallel.

**Problems with floating point calculation in hardware**

Let's go back to our equation. Unfortunately, we've got exponential decay described in our graph. If you don't already know floating point calculations,or in our case differential/integral calculations perform horribly on hardware - (using logic gates).

So we employ a little trick which involves using the **forward-euler** method to approximate the exponential decay.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euler_method

Let's not get too technical here, but essentially we use repeated subtraction to estimate exponential decay and remove the need for floating point calculations. Point to note, repeated subtraction can easily be constructed with logic gates.

So let's say we have now devised an FPGA for a neuron. The basic configuration to set up many in parallel will look as follows:-

**Conclusions**

-Learning occurs by adjusting the weight matrix in a neuron

-A spiking neuron can be modelled with FPGAs which have the benefit of being massively parallel and having no serial depencies. This makes it much much faster than modelling in software.

-The forward-eular trick can be used to approxiate exponential decay thereby reducing the calculation computations.

Overall, this points us to the conclusion that modelling neural networks in hardware should offer more efficient and faster learning results.

Thanks for reading.

**Further reading**

If you are interested in getting setup, you can head over to http://www.xilinx.com/ and download their SDK. You can simulate your FPGA circuits with their software before buying the real thing (and flashing the hardware).

What I mean by "production ready" is that it could be incorperated into a product, not just used a tool to fool around with in order to find some relationships. For instants, Pandora is probably a good example of a company that uses some algorithm (I would guess logistical regression, but I don't really know) to compute values from code.

In Java, things like Weka and RapidMiner seem to include the ability to be called from code as an afterthought and it's always awkward to do. I can't imagine either of them being used in production. Python's too slow to use for anything very big (It's suppose to be "Big Data" after all) and R can't scale at all.

It's possible to write everything in pure Java/C++/C code, but why arn't there any good libraries targeted at programming designed for programming environments. I feel like I'm missing something. What are these big companies using?

]]>By "reference" I mean that it contains all the basic algorithms (machine-learning algorithms especially) like QuickSort, Logistical Regression, Clustering. Preferably, including both the mathimicatical definition as well as psuedo code, or even real code (preferably in Java, Python, or C++, but any code is better than none).

I just want a book that I can crack open whenever I need to implement a certain algorithm. Internet recources on algorithms are suprisingly sparse, especially compared to "regular" programming.

]]>```
SalesReport
Read customer file
Get TaxCode
Get GSTAmount SalesTax
Calculate SalesTax
Process customer record
Read cust name, Sales Amount, TaxCode
If TaxCode = 0 Then
Let tax amt = 0
ElseIf tax code = 1 Then
Let tax amt = Sales Amount * 0.05
ElseIf tax code = 2 Then
Let tax amt = Sales Amount * 0.10
EndIf
Let TotalSalesAmount = SalesAmount+Tax amt
Then Display â€œCustomerID,Name,SalesAmount,SalesTax,TotalSalesAmountâ€
End
```

]]>I have demodulated two AM files (I/Q) succesfully but for one of the I/Q

files which was Gnuradio (USRP) file i had to scale down I and Q components

before demodulation by multiplying by 0.0001 (experimental value) to get

the value that can be demodulated and heard on the PC speakers. The values

read from file were like these

I= 469.00000, Q=-273.0000, I=462.00000, Q=-263.0000,,,,,,,,,,

then i multiplied them by 0.0001 and then performed demodulation and result

was a success.

But for other file, the values read were like

I= -0.0014953613, Q= 0.0039367676, I=0.0018615723 ,Q = 0.0010681152

In this case no scaling of I/Q samples before demodulation was required and

AM demodulation was perfect.

My question, What is the rule of thumb for scaling values if one has to

make generic function to read and demodulate from file or live source. What

factor one can calculate to be multiplied to I/Q samples based on its

current content value. I have also noticed that whatever you multiply after

demodulation for gain (volume) will not give result if before demodulation

the I/Q values are not scaled. Any comments please.

First of all I wasn't really sure where to post this so please let me know if I'm in the wrong forum for such a question.

I understand the basics of git, but I'm still very new. I have used git locally and on github. I was wondering if this was possible:

I want to set up my main git repository in my Dropbox, then have the same repository on my local mac machine and a remote HPC. So when I can edit them in my dropbox and always have them pulling from there. The problem is I have kind of set up stuff on each machine. Do I need to scrap everything and just clone from the Dropbox directory to my local machine and the HPC? Also, I know how to clone from github, but am a little confused as to how I would clone from the HPC from my Dropbox. Does anyone have any advice or a tutorial that addresses things such as this?

Thank you all for your time!

]]>Help me,please.. ]]>

```
-- Cipher 126 code by Steven Tinsley.
module Main where
import System.IO
import System.Environment
import Data.List
import Data.Bits
import Data.Array.IO
char_set = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789 /!\"Â£$%^&*()-_=+[]{};:'@#~\\|,.<>.?\n\t`Â¬Â¥Ã¨Ã©Ã¹Ã¬Ã²Ã‡Ã˜Ã¸Ã…Ã¥Â§Ã„Ã–Ã‘ÃœÂ¿Ã¶Ã±Ã¼Ã â‚¬Â©Â®Â½Â¾"
dec_bin1 :: Float -> Float -> [Int]
dec_bin1 d_num factor = if (d_num - factor) < 0 then 0 : dec_bin1 d_num (factor / 2)
else if (d_num - factor) == 0 then [1]
else 1 : dec_bin1 (d_num - factor) (factor / 2)
dec_bin0 :: [Int] -> [Int]
dec_bin0 [] = []
dec_bin0 (x:xs) = pad0 (dec_bin1 (fromIntegral x) 32) ++ dec_bin0 xs
pad0 :: [Int] -> [Int]
pad0 xs = take 6 (xs ++ [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0])
pad1 :: [Int] -> [Int]
pad1 xs = take 126 (xs ++ [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0])
pad2 :: [Char] -> [Char]
pad2 m =
let l = 21 - mod (length m) 21
p = " "
in
m ++ take l p
verify_key :: [Int] -> Int
verify_key [] = 126
verify_key (x:xs) =
if length (takeWhile (/= x) xs) == length xs then verify_key xs
else x
-- Converts the plaintext to the base 64 integer form used in the block cipher
conv_txt0 :: [Char] -> [Char] -> [Int]
conv_txt0 [] table = []
conv_txt0 (x:xs) table =
if length (takeWhile (/= x) table) < 63 then length (takeWhile (/= x) table) : conv_txt0 xs table
else [63, length (takeWhile (/= x) table) - 63] ++ conv_txt0 xs table
-- Converts the string form of key (2) to the base 126 integer form used in the block cipher
conv_txt1 :: [Char] -> [Char] -> [Int]
conv_txt1 [] table = []
conv_txt1 (x:xs) table =
let i0 = length (takeWhile (/= x) table)
i1 = length (takeWhile (/= xs !! 0) table)
in
if x == '/' then (63 + i1) : conv_txt1 (drop 1 xs) table
else i0 : conv_txt1 xs table
-- Converts the string form of key (1) to the base 64 integer form used in the block cipher
conv_txt2 :: [Char] -> [Char] -> [Int]
conv_txt2 [] table = []
conv_txt2 (x:xs) table = length (takeWhile (/= x) table) : conv_txt2 xs table
-- Converts the plaintext to the base 64 string form used in the stream cipher xor operation
conv_txt3 :: [Char] -> [Char] -> [Char]
conv_txt3 [] table = []
conv_txt3 (x:xs) table =
let i0 = length (takeWhile (/= x) table)
in
if i0 > 63 then ['/', table !! (i0 - 63)] ++ conv_txt3 xs table
else x : conv_txt3 xs table
-- Converts the base 64 string form output by the stream cipher to the base 126 plaintext form
conv_txt4 :: [Char] -> [Char] -> [Char]
conv_txt4 [] table = []
conv_txt4 (x:xs) table = if x == '/' && xs !! 0 == '/' then conv_txt4 (drop 1 xs) table
else if x == '/' then table !! (63 + length (takeWhile (/= xs !! 0) table)) : conv_txt4 (drop 1 xs) table
else x : conv_txt4 xs table
-- Converts the base 64 integer form output by the block cipher to base 64 string form
conv_seq0 :: [Int] -> [Char] -> [Char]
conv_seq0 [] table = []
conv_seq0 (x:xs) table = (table !! x) : conv_seq0 xs table
conv_seq1 :: [Int] -> [Char] -> [Char]
conv_seq1 [] table = []
conv_seq1 (x0:x1:xs) table =
if x0 == 63 then (table !! (63 + x1)) : conv_seq1 xs table
else (table !! x0) : conv_seq1 (x1:xs) table
-- These two functions implement the block cipher logic
sub_char :: [Int] -> [Int] -> [Int]
sub_char [] table = []
sub_char (x:xs) table = (table !! x) : sub_char xs table
swap_bit :: [Int] -> [Int] -> [Int]
swap_bit ptxt [] = []
swap_bit ptxt (x0:x1:x2:x3:x4:x5:xs) = (ptxt !! x0) * 32 + (ptxt !! x1) * 16 + (ptxt !! x2) * 8 + (ptxt !! x3) * 4 + (ptxt !! x4) * 2 + (ptxt !! x5) : swap_bit ptxt xs
conv_txt :: Char -> [Char] -> Int
conv_txt x table = length (takeWhile (/= x) table)
conv_seq :: Int -> [Char] -> Char
conv_seq x table = table !! x
-- These two functions implement the sequence counter used in stream cipher mode
gen_seed1 :: [Int] -> [Int]
gen_seed1 [] = []
gen_seed1 (x0:x1:x2:x3:x4:x5:xs) = (x0 * 32 + x1 * 16 + x2 * 8 + x3 * 4 + x4 * 2 + x5) : gen_seed1 xs
gen_seed0 :: Integer -> Integer -> [Int]
gen_seed0 p 0 = []
gen_seed0 p c = (gen_seed1 (pad1 (dec_bin1 (fromIntegral p) (2 ^ 125)))) ++ gen_seed0 (p + 1) (c - 1)
-- These three functions implement the xor operation used in stream cipher mode
xor2 :: [Int] -> [Int] -> Int
xor2 (x0:x1:x2:x3:x4:x5:xs) (y0:y1:y2:y3:y4:y5:ys) = 32 * (xor x0 y0) + 16 * (xor x1 y1) + 8 * (xor x2 y2) + 4 * (xor x3 y3) + 2 * (xor x4 y4) + (xor x5 y5)
xor1 :: Char -> Char -> Char
xor1 a b = conv_seq (xor2 (pad0 (dec_bin1 (fromIntegral (conv_txt a char_set)::Float) 32)) (pad0 (dec_bin1 (fromIntegral (conv_txt b char_set)::Float) 32))) char_set
xor0 :: [Char] -> [Char] -> [Char]
xor0 [] b = []
xor0 (x:xs) (y:ys) = (xor1 x y) : xor0 xs ys
encrypt1 :: [Int] -> [Int] -> [Int] -> Int -> Int -> [Int]
encrypt1 txt key1 key2 a b =
if a == b then txt
else encrypt1 (swap_bit (dec_bin0 (sub_char txt key1)) key2) key1 key2 a (b + 1)
encrypt0 :: [Int] -> [Int] -> [Int] -> Int -> [Char]
encrypt0 [] key1 key2 n = []
encrypt0 p_txt key1 key2 n =
if length p_txt < 21 then []
else (conv_seq0 (encrypt1 (take 21 p_txt) key1 key2 n 0) char_set) ++ encrypt0 (drop 21 p_txt) key1 key2 n
decrypt1 :: [Int] -> [Int] -> [Int] -> Int -> Int -> [Int]
decrypt1 txt key1 key2 a b =
if a == b then txt
else decrypt1 (sub_char (swap_bit (dec_bin0 txt) key2) key1) key1 key2 a (b + 1)
decrypt0 :: [Int] -> [Int] -> [Int] -> Int -> [Char]
decrypt0 [] key1 key2 n = []
decrypt0 c_txt key1 key2 n =
if length c_txt < 21 then []
else (conv_seq0 (decrypt1 (take 21 c_txt) key1 key2 n 0) char_set) ++ decrypt0 (drop 21 c_txt) key1 key2 n
main :: IO ()
main = do
a <- getArgs
if (a !! 0) == "s_encrypt" then do
h0 <- openFile (a !! 1) ReadMode
hSetEncoding h0 utf8
message <- hGetContents h0
h1 <- openFile (a !! 2) ReadMode
hSetEncoding h1 utf8
key <- hGetContents h1
if verify_key (conv_txt2 (take 64 key) char_set) < 126 then do
putStr "Part 1 of the key is invalid. Duplication: "
print (verify_key (conv_txt2 (take 64 key) char_set))
else if verify_key (conv_txt1 (drop 64 key) char_set) < 126 then do
putStr "Part 2 of the key is invalid. Duplication: "
print (verify_key (conv_txt1 (drop 64 key) char_set))
else do
h2 <- openFile (a !! 3) WriteMode
hSetEncoding h2 utf8
hPutStr h2 (xor0 (pad2 (conv_txt3 message char_set)) (encrypt0 (gen_seed0 0 (fromIntegral (div (length (pad2 (conv_txt3 message char_set))) 21))) (conv_txt2 (take 64 key) char_set) (conv_txt1 (drop 64 key) char_set) (read (a !! 4)::Int)))
hClose h2
hClose h0
hClose h1
else if (a !! 0) == "s_decrypt" then do
h0 <- openFile (a !! 1) ReadMode
hSetEncoding h0 utf8
message <- hGetContents h0
h1 <- openFile (a !! 2) ReadMode
hSetEncoding h1 utf8
key <- hGetContents h1
h2 <- openFile (a !! 3) WriteMode
hSetEncoding h2 utf8
hPutStr h2 (conv_txt4 (xor0 message (encrypt0 (gen_seed0 0 (fromIntegral (div (length message) 21))) (conv_txt2 (take 64 key) char_set) (conv_txt1 (drop 64 key) char_set) (read (a !! 4)::Int))) char_set)
hClose h0
hClose h1
hClose h2
else if (a !! 0) == "b_encrypt" then do
h0 <- openFile (a !! 1) ReadMode
hSetEncoding h0 utf8
message <- hGetContents h0
h1 <- openFile (a !! 2) ReadMode
hSetEncoding h1 utf8
key <- hGetContents h1
if verify_key (conv_txt2 (take 64 key) char_set) < 126 then do
putStr "Part 1 of the key is invalid. Duplication: "
print (verify_key (conv_txt2 (take 64 key) char_set))
else if verify_key (conv_txt1 (drop 64 key) char_set) < 126 then do
putStr "Part 2 of the key is invalid. Duplication: "
print (verify_key (conv_txt1 (drop 64 key) char_set))
else do
h2 <- openFile (a !! 3) WriteMode
hSetEncoding h2 utf8
hPutStr h2 (encrypt0 (conv_txt2 (pad2 (conv_txt3 message char_set)) char_set) (conv_txt2 (take 64 key) char_set) (conv_txt1 (drop 64 key) char_set) (read (a !! 4)::Int))
hClose h2
hClose h0
hClose h1
else if (a !! 0) == "b_decrypt" then do
h0 <- openFile (a !! 1) ReadMode
hSetEncoding h0 utf8
message <- hGetContents h0
h1 <- openFile (a !! 2) ReadMode
hSetEncoding h1 utf8
key0 <- hGetContents h1
h2 <- openFile (a !! 3) WriteMode
block <- newArray (0, 125) 0 :: IO (IOArray Int Int)
key1_ <- mod_key1 (conv_txt2 (take 64 key0) char_set) block 0
key1 <- mod_key0 key1_ [] 0 64
key2_ <- mod_key1 (conv_txt1 (drop 64 key0) char_set) block 0
key2 <- mod_key0 key2_ [] 0 126
hPutStr h2 (conv_txt4 (decrypt0 (conv_txt2 message char_set) key1 key2 (read (a !! 4)::Int)) char_set)
hClose h0
hClose h1
hClose h2
else putStrLn "Feature not implemented."
mod_key1 :: [Int] -> (IOArray Int Int) -> Int -> IO (IOArray Int Int)
mod_key1 [] inv_key c = return inv_key
mod_key1 (x:xs) inv_key c = do
writeArray inv_key x c
mod_key1 xs inv_key (c + 1)
mod_key0 :: (IOArray Int Int) -> [Int] -> Int -> Int -> IO [Int]
mod_key0 block lt c l = do
if c == l then return lt
else do
a <- readArray block c
mod_key0 block (lt ++ [a]) (c + 1) l
```

Description of the cipher

The algorithm is a symmetric block cipher with a 126 bit block size and approximately 999 bit keys. The current prototype can run in counter mode to produce a stream cipher or electronic code book mode, although due to the known weaknesses in this it is planned this will be replaced with cipher block chaining in the next version. The key is made up of two parts (1) and (2), each of which is converted internally to a sequence of numbers (seq (1) and seq (2)) with complexity of about 296 bits and 703 bits respectively. Key (1) is represented by a 64 character base 64 string within the character set:

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789 / (reference set)

For example:

KJW3nQCRagYr25po1yxku0tZXbGdhSDOfec7qM496zPsAFHwj/BIUELTlN 8Vivm

Each character in the set can only appear once so there are 64! possible states. Each character is converted to a number from 0 â€“ 63 depending on its position in the reference set. Key (2) is represented by a 189 character base 64 string within the reference set. The following scheme is used to convert key (2) to a sequence of numbers between 0 â€“ 125 internally.

in a string [x0, x1, xs] (Haskell grammar)

if x0 is not '/ ' then return 0 to 62 depending on the position of x0 in the reference set. (case 1)

else return 63 + (0 to 62) depending on the position of x1 in the reference set (case 2). Run the process again starting with x1 in case 1 or the first character in xs in case 2.

As each possible number can only appear once in seq (2) there are 126! possible states. Key (1) and (2) are used in the Sub Character and Swap Bit steps described below, respectively. These steps are performed in the order (Sub Character, Swap Bit) for block encryption and in reverse for block decryption. This sequence can be run an arbitrary number of times set by the user. In the examples shown here 10 rounds are used, which on a 1.6 GHz Intel Celeron CPU yields about 64 k bit / s plaintext processed in counter mode.

Sub Character step

In this step the input block is divided into 21 6 bit values. Each value n is substituted with the nth value in seq (1).

Swap Bit step

In this step the input block is treated as a sequence of 126 bits. The position of the nth bit is changed to the value of the nth entry in seq (2).

Implementation

The prototype is written in Haskell and compiles on GHC in Haskell platform 2013.2.0.0. It accepts as plaintext strings of characters in the set:

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789 /!\"Â£$%^&*()-_=+[]{};:'@#~\|,.<>.?\n\t`Â¬Â¥Ã¨Ã©Ã¹Ã¬Ã²Ã‡Ã˜Ã¸Ã…Ã¥Â§Ã„Ã–Ã‘ÃœÂ¿Ã¶Ã±Ã¼Ã â‚¬Â©Â®Â½Â¾

It returns a ciphertext within the reference set.

To use

For stream cipher mode encryption in the console run: [program file] s_encrypt [plaintext.txt] [key.txt] [ciphertext.txt] n (n = number of rounds)

For stream cipher mode decryption in the console run: [program file] s_decrypt [ciphertext.txt] [key.txt] [plaintext.txt] n (n = number of rounds)

Example ciphertext: aaDjBC28147bewcgNN9bbp2SVaB33nyEy1LoSDZ8g2ycOFTMoTobRkkMgzH6cX7djCtTxINXUkizph6XhljnyY0XfrgneIk9lNXk3HYGYLx3Bf9lrY4m4mj84w/pA9B4CCB7UGoSAwOODFewdrWskrmyVQxw4Hag1pwJv2vXzwzLqCzjrP7BmDfbN 2JN1o45zwwHXb3Moos1Vre9p0CWHaVL3Zrcw1eJlK9TE08OIDwfTVtrxEfbDqXtYeQsm3BuW7u2NC7lVs bfHxArHMw23w2toL8VJMeKmhpL7FCWr70lOsrGOMWsAC2xV4iKPnwpBvz0JaNVJX5h453u/b7sl18 U53UyVNy6JVpVaoJ SbOzftWbEqQWzxcvOJNXusfd9tyTJCWkmSX3htsSa6a1RWZgfManRw2ZBSA0ImYFBVCLkg2koQAHMcOHNEPsSQ/2isOpWQtYjOKb/ENpRqwiUP/Ha1H2niOVrU3R/r XnziIZYrWcOctoS//nbH4qJYM9HAkTVSwxHe lc1OygG/OYo /kPGqXXyPiv9Y218Ww1Qk1n7zpIlURLVHVIbZ36KMFF5sAH3dt6vb 3iRY8ecdRfIMOeAbkx8qAKrrhy/6TLGOfdUssN72qhGhp2Ym3ctpeyMoD9y oFzUpF LQog2Vj4kkj FKUzTZg2teYrEwU6CzfyX1FBXmTnxZ1x1GWCehLhksJTJxpTUVduW8EagWj8xiqKuf5mLiRIPCf2BhQjx7/FfJu3 BdbKOO/Bez5JsZGs/LGsJMvifib8mzJXWix1VniAoHzjTkQ1 c9QROpQU4N GWXTwQcmGCYtJrtnxyL0cZRZMjc96B93UhJxMUWWDiEsa/pmyyL15ZwKshazJEMUNUMt38FxemOjHYcVZ

Key: E1wXSsWrc25BJ98f7KtCudUmx3gFipYMVZ RyzbToqe6nDhHPON4l/GQAvIjkaL0m/c/N/SMK/W/XZPU/aFa/piYJ/m/ /r/v/1b/P/e3/2eQN/Y/k/4/sfr/nv/AHD/3ckw/g7Ono9/E/L/xyG/qjq/y/tA1g/R/F/O0/V/z/ZE/J/op4/DhC/Mt/jXV/d/B/b/H6/G/8/wW/C/5L2/fz/6R5/Txd/l/Q T/I/0/U8/i/uS/hu/7/KlB/9sI

Challenge ciphertext: GKjXqpq1iz/6OJ81WKNfOdcl5stnZlzI0NA88B/ASzvlB8mfzz66EckirfEvVMV6x30tdrTbe/oEqZdGUL/GCKIphqmW4x27oLtZtPUgVkuV75o WbfTDTYNWlSUmTTqHBhljMawa9a9IrXnpDg3ZKojlrSPPRNam6oyn44fU7oLaZMxJTDqM2BsfODeiGPfAtJw5Tl1onoCcrEyOYJiJnT53NSkFZmDQ52rO54j6UdBfeoBGZLFqurD1taqsHN3FZVZmjIY37ipvYDLlOXazkw44K1wV1j5tk8q9pP3iIP59SSNnK4r9gp09HAR0/ieNyZsKnDQujwZRXXsSlM/kFwEJdFgGsttNj7QJ77l9fuvkO3L3T0aHQfUwLQAtQXByAoc6/ lG/t7be9

Steven

]]>But I think It should be here.

If we go to the youtube/google/torrent etc... and finding the crack we may find many crack, patch, keygen, crack dll files etc.

but how they are created, the owner is not going to share his own compny product crack.

So this is my question HOW THEY CRACKED any program.

And if I want to learn about this online for free, from where should I?

Did they Use any programs to Cracked? if Yes: Then Which Program.

Once i read the topic I get news actually the program can also be cracked by the hexadecimal value.

(that can be changed with HxD) (example with IDM)

But this is half solution or 1/4 solution.

So Can Someone Help me?

I AM NOT DOING THIS AS FOR HACKING PURPOSE, BUT I WANT TO KNOW.

AS TO CREATE THE BEST PROGRAMS WE SHOULD ALSO KNOW HOW TO PROTECT OUR PRODUCT BY HACKING. BUT BEFORE THIS WE SHOULD KNOW HOW HACK IS DONE

I need to choose a specialization, so I have two main candidates : Artificial Intelligence and Data Science.

I like both of the degrees, but If you could help me by writting from your experience what are the positive, and what negative sides of this dilemma, that would be very helpful.

Thank You!

]]>For eg. We have f(n)=3n+2=O(n) as 3n+2<=4n for all n>=2 but what if we say c=2 instead of 4.

And in another example 3n+3=Sigma(n) as 3n+3>=3n for n>=1. but what if we say c=10 instead of 3.

Please help me out.

]]>There is a question which I don't really quite understand. Can someone explain the answer to me?

I get the first part: the declaration of the "function" however the rest of it I am quite confused. Variables do not need to be declared for this type of exercise.

Insert a sequence at a given location in another sequence.

For example, if the sequence <z,x,z> were to be inserted at location 2 of the sequence <x,y,z>,

the result would be the sequence <x,z,x,z,y,z>.

(Note that this operation is defined only for locations that are within the sequence, in above

example, locations 1, 2 and 3).

The answer is given below.

```
insert: seq X â†’ NAT â†’ seq X â‡¸ seq X
n < #t â‡’
(i < n â‡’ (insert s n t) i = t i âˆ§
n â‰¤ i < n â‡’ (insert s n t) i = s(i â€“ n + 1) âˆ§
i â‰¥ n + #s â‡’ (insert s n t) i = t(i - #s))
```

]]>The question asks me to split the characterArray= joe,487 into two seperate variables, one is a variable called idArray where the numbers 487 will go, then i have to have three spaces for the comma and then the final variable is nameArray which the name joe should go.

my problem is that i do not know how to write this into a pseudocode algorithm.

any help would be greatly apreciated?

]]>```
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Internet.

Using pseudocode or otherwise, write an algorithm which will;

â€¢ for each student, record the times logged on and logged off

â€¢ calculate the length of time each student spends online

â€¢ calculate and output the average length of time per day spent by each student on the Internet

My Answewr give below

```
X | Y | Xâ€™ | Xâ€™.Y | X+Xâ€™.Y | X+Y
0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0
0 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1
1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1
1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1
Prove algebraically that X + Xâ€™Y = X + Y.
L.H.S. = X + Xâ€™Y
= X.1 + Xâ€™Y (X . 1 = X property of 0 and 1)
= X(1 + Y) + Xâ€™Y (1 + Y = 1 property of 0 and 1)
= X + XY + Xâ€™Y
= X + Y(X + Xâ€™)
= X + Y.1 (X + Xâ€™ =1 complementary law)
= X + Y (Y . 1 = Y property of 0 and 1)
= R.H.S. Hence proved.
```

My teacher marked my answer WRONG. And told me to find the correct answer. Friends tell me is it a complementary law or distributive law or Absorption law? If it is absorption kindly tell me how to prove RHS and LHS algebraically.

Thank you for any advice or suggestions.

]]>Here's the problem. It's on two pages so I had to take two screenshots.

http://puu.sh/8Ch8v

http://puu.sh/8Chak

I understand the concept of the problem, and the equations are given to me. I just don't know how to put it in matlab code then produce a graph in tiff.

If somebody could explain to me how to code that, I would greatly appreciate it!!!

Thanks!!

]]>Besides using the "find in files" feature in most scripting applications how else could I find out how everything or just a few pieces of it work? If I wanted to do just a few small mods what would be the best way to do that? Must I understand the entire picture or just select parts of it? This is something I have never done before. I hope this isn't a pointless question that can't be answered.

]]>I have personal projects that I have done, but no "real world" experience in the workplace with programming. On my resume, I have listed experience with certain languages but have actually been told that I should label it as "academic experience only" on my resume. I would think that a hiring manager would be smart enough to realize that since I did not list any professional work experience as a programmer on my resume, then all of the languages I have put on my resume would be academic only anyway. Any thoughts?

]]>The pseudocode assignment is to create a mail merge program. Managed to do the code for the main program. Is there anyone that can provide the functions for the following code? HELP IS VERY VERY VERY APPRICIATED

Mail Program in Pseudocode

data totalPeople as whole number

output "Enter number of people (between 2 and 20 inclusive)â€

input totalPeople

loop until (totalPeople is greater or equal to 2) AND (totalPeople is less than or equal to 20)

- output "Number of people must be between 2 and 20 inclusive"
- input totalPeople
next loop

data name as string

- data c as whole number
data namesArray as array (totalPeople) of string

loop while c is less than sizeof (namesArray)

- output "Enter name"
- input name
- loop until name is not equal to â€œ â€œ
- output "Name cannot be left empty. Re-enter name"
- input name
- next loop
- namesArray[c] = name; c=c+1
end loop

data address as string

- data i as whole number
data addressesArray as array (totalPeople) of string

loop while i is less than sizeof (addressesArray)

- output "Enter address"
- input address
- loop until address is not â€œ â€œ
- output "Address cannot be left empty. Re-enter address"
- input address
- next loop
- addressesArray[i] = address; i=i+1
end loop

data totalParagraphs as whole number

output "Enter number of paragraphs (between 3 and 8 inclusive)â€

input totalParagraphs

loop until (totalParagraphs is greater or equal to 3) AND (totalParagraphs is less than or equal to 8)

- output "Number of paragrahs must be between 3 and 8 inclusive"
- input totalParagraphs
next loop

data paragraph as string

- data x as whole number
data paragraphsArray as array (totalParagraphs) of string

loop while x is less than size of (paragraphsArray)

- output "Enter paragraphâ€
- input paragraph
- loop until paragraph is not â€œ â€œ
- output "Paragraph cannot be left empty. Re-enter paragraph"
- input paragraph
- next loop
- paragraphsArray[x] = paragraph; x=x+1
end loop

data joinedParagraphs as string

joinedParagraphs = Join(â€œ, â€œ , paragraphsArray)

data p as whole number

output â€œList of complete letters:â€

- loop while p is less than sizeof (totalPeople)
- output addressesArray[p] + ", " + namesArray[p] + ", " + joinedParagraphs
- end loop

I want to know how artificial intelligence system(s) work(s)? I want to know whether artificial intelligence depends upon software i.e special type of software having special algorithms or it depends upon special type of hardware having characteristics like human brain cortex and neuron system or both of them(software and hardware) working in harmony. I know the real world present artificial intelligence system examples like the

I'll be grateful if you help me....!

Waiting for your assisstance......!

i wonder why many people researching about saliency. i can't get enough illustration how saliency would be any of use to human in the world. could u give me any example that describe usefullness of saliency? ]]>