First research your target audience. Search where your actual customers go, act and think. Social media strategy goes by the behaviour of your target customer. One think you should understand that every social medium is unique and has a unique tendency. Facebook, twitter, Google+ has own set of rules. Appropriateness can only be defined by the customers online journey.

I don't understand what do you mean by "buying traffic". How could you by traffic? Traffic constitutes from real visits from niche prospects. Do you want to place your brand on a resource where your target audience go? if yes then there is no harm in placing your brand on such resource but make sure you don't persuade too much, display brand service in right light.

Why don't you go for Page Authority? I guess it is far better way of understanding your page position and performance.

Always go for white hat, do not I repeat DO NOT go for black hat in any way! in this way you will harm your consumers as well. Do not play with them or game the system.

Go for targeted links from the sites where you propects go! Prove yourself that you deserve number 1 slot in Google by adhering to the guidelines that Google issues from time to time. Feed your prospects with right content when and where they need it. Be a content leader, social leader, brand leader if you want to become number 1 in Google.

Everything depends on where your target market lives. Off course they may be on facebook, twitter, Google+, or any other specific community based site. You can go for banner advertising, PPC or email campaign as well. Again it depends on your target market, budget and strategy for marketing medium/channel.

I think you are talking about "on page" aspect of seo. For this you can check for on page factors. Main factors to see at first include:

  • META Data (Title, Description)
  • Content (seo copywriting)
  • Keywords usage throughout website
  • IA (Information Architecture)
  • Call to Actions
  • Landing Pages
  • Headings, Other SEO tags
  • Sitemaps, robots file
  • Duplication
  • Canoncalization
    The list goes on!

Rankings and Traffic go hand in hand, better the rankings better the traffic will be. Why do you want to stop one directly related indicator?

It solely depends on your target market, conduct a search and find out where your customer resides, every channel is different and should be dealt with specific strategy.

no clue, question lacks in clarity. before setting a campaign, ppc provider asks you of payment details in account section most preferably. you will only be credited due to invalid traffic, that is it.

if possible hand over rss and sitemap stuff to coder, other way is the usage of online coversion tools available that will guide to the process from sitemap to RSS.

You have done the right thing, I prefer to ask the hosting provider at first before trying my own ninja IT skills.