Unless you are using a proxy of some sorts.

skilly commented: curious +3

A short simple answer defined here as well as some other good little tid bits, but if this is for homework I suggest you really get out and do some research. Your teacher probably isn't going to be impressed with a one sentence answer to this. Anyway by gaining the trust of a computer that is trusted by the target network you can bypass alot of security. Have a look here [URL="

I haven't really studied these until today, but from the information I have gathered today they are in fact quite similar. Also it seems that the techniques would in fact work well together in my opionion. Major diffrence?

syn-cookie: Uses a timestamp and uses that to create a queue associated with the client, also provides an encrypted portion to ensure client integrity.

HFC: Uses hops(the distance from client to server) and basically creates a list of valid ip -> to hops to check against and filter out possible ip's that have been spoofed.

As far as you question reguarding using them together like I said they seem to work well together and both are great counter-measures however according to the information I gathered syn-cookie has been updated and replaced with tcpct which is a tcp extension and would probably be prefered over syn-cookie so you may want to research that as well.

s.w.a commented: thank you for your huge attention,helpful information and clear sentances +2

Yes what you say is true. The rules for the key can of course be ajusted at the router, while the packet is still in packet "form". The server should maintain information about the key. Now that you have a clear picture let's look at some examples.

Client sends request to server
Server accepts the request and sends key
The rules of this key are to send data to the client unless the connection is timed out lets say 10 minutes of inactivity. At that point if the server has not had another request from the client authentication must take place again.
So server sends key and trasmits the data
Lets pretend it was a 9.50 min long video
The data is sent and the connection is still valid for 10 seconds incase of problems
After the 10 minutes the server dumps the key and the client must send a new request.

Now if we want to tighten up security on it we could possibly do something like.
Client sends request
Server recieves and sends key
Rules of this key will be that every 2 minutes the key must be renewed.
Here is our problem....
The client only requests the information once.
They push the button get authenticated and expect all the data to come at them.
One way possibly around this issue would be to install special software on the client which defines new rules. For example we let the client know that before the 2 minutes are up ...

Ok if you are just interested in how it works I can attempt to explain. The thing to realize here is that most of this is usually done automatically for us. Take for example youtube.com A client clicks the link to stream a video, when they click the link the request is sent to the server. The server recieves this and begins to send out the information requested. You seem to want to know what information is in the request packet. This explains the layout of a UDP request packet [URL="

That would probably depend on what you are sending. What services does the server have that you will be sending out in UDP? Are you building your own sockets as an experiment? Are you providing voice over ip? Are you streaming video? I would have to know what you are trying to accomplish first. You say you want to know what the request is but you should already know. What is your client requesting then you can examine it at the the protocol levels.

I'm hoping this will stir the pot a bit lol. But in all seriousness if you could get rid of the "need for greed" and "status", and yet not cross to many boundries. Don't you think that this could provide a more reasonable standard of living for everybody? My main thoughts were of people such as Oparah and Bill Gates which easily have enough money to supply everyone in the continental U.S. with over a million dollars each in their bank accounts. This of course would be catosrophic to the market if this were to happen all at once, but honestly 7% or whatever it is of the people control all the money and make all the decisions? Shouldn't the money be spread around better so that everybody can have a chance at a better life? Or maybe it should stay where it is collecting interest in an rediculously large account getting bigger by the moment. Any thoughts?

susheelsundar commented: it's not Just bill gates and Oparah everyone wants to Screw market, coz everyone wants to get rich like mad +0

Just some other thoughts about copyrights....

  1. Would you personally sue a 12 year old little girl and her family because she happened to be smart enough to download a torrent and gain access to something you created and own rights to?

  2. Would you personally sue the creater of a program that allows people to share files which could pottentially be used illegally?

  3. Would you personally sue websites that premote the use of file sharing programs?

  4. If you were the creater of a program like adobe photoshop. Would you personally sue a hard working person who pays their bills but barely scrapes by just as many of us do, and this person downloaded your material for free and used the program for personal use?

  5. Consider the same person in question 4. Now he decides he is going to start downloading multiple copies of your software and sell them at a cheap price to his buddies who would like the software. Would you sue him now?

Point of fact is there are many senarios that can be played out, and each case should be handled seperatly and decided on by the owner of the product.

Sounds like a homework question of some sort. And your question is somewhat unclear. Program to make diffrent combinations of what exactly. And yes it will be a function if it is recursive. Recursive functions make a call to "themselfs" until a condition is met. Here is a link to a sight with some great tutorials I would suggest you read through it. This page contains information on recursive functions.

That is exactly where the problem is look directly above that line buddy :).

Depending on the page you probably need to login to fb first before you can access that page.

VulcanDesign commented: Thanks for the help! +2

I modified this one a bit from a post I made a few days ago so you will need to clean it up but it does what you want.
from random import randrange

def initialize():
""" create a list of random numbers and sort them and print them out"""

creates the list
tmp = []
mylist = []
for num in range(0,15):

#keep sending the list to the sorter always returning the
#highest number back until initial list is empty
while mylist != []:
    highest = sorter(mylist)
#print to screen
#print "high to low\n" , tmp
print "high", tmp[0]
#print "low to high\n" , tmp
print "low", tmp[0]
length = len(tmp)
average = 0
for item in tmp:
    average += item
average = average / length
print "average", average

def sorter(mylist):
""" find the highest number and return it"""
highest = 0
for item in mylist:
if item > highest:
highest = item
return highest


Hi and welcome to my favorite place on earth for the most part. What they are saying is true people are great here and will help you to become great if you want. On the other hand it's not a group of babysitters. The great part about your assignment is it is the english translation of what you already need to do, which is how you should start all your programs. So step one is complete. Now you need to start traslating it to python.

1.write a function - Do I know how to write a function? If not google is my friend.
If I do I know it looks like this.

def function_name(arguments_if_any):

statements or in other words things the funtion will do
#hmmmmmm function should prompt user for how many numbers
#should be processed when i learned about basic input output
#and variables I know this should work out ok.
howmany = input("How many numbers: ") #get user input and store in variable
print howmany #print works good to see what they entered
#now i need to ask the user for that many numbers... but how?
#oh yeah loops work good for that.
while howmany > 0: #my while loop will loop until it reaches 0
    howmany -= 1
    print howmany #for testing purposes

    #now i need to ask for input again and compute the average of
    #the numbers the user enters. then move on to question 2

function_name(None) #test and run my function no arguments so ...

sneekula commented: nice hints +12

Very inventive of you tonyjv. Here's my simplistic attempt :).
from time import sleep
import os

def lotsofprints():
print "\n" * 40

message = "read me soon because I'm bound to disappear"

print message
sleep(1) # or .xx for milliseconds

os.system("cls") #uncomment if running on windows from a command line

lotsofprints() #for use in idle maybe somebody cooler than me has better one

e-papa commented: thanks +3