I got the similar problem as below - internet connection is OK, firefox working properly, but I.E is broken, which resulting that Iwas not able to get updates and stuff from microsoft and various other things that ONLY internet explorer is allowed on for some reason.
I tried many solutions, much regret nothing could resolve. understand the last step is to re-format the pc, but believe all your guys here have a better solution?
Go to the tools option in the menu bar, select "internet options" from the drop down. Go to the "Advanced" tab and click on the Reset button below. It worked for me.