What are the different types of panels in java used as containers

Not sure what you're asking. A typical gui might have a JFrame, which would have a main JPanel into which you'd put your components. You might use nested JPanels for organizing components (a button panel for your JButtons, for example).
You might also find that you use JTabbedPanes or JScrollPanes or JSplitPanes for displaying different types of information.
Is any of this what you're looking for?
If so, try the Swing tutorial on the Sun web site - that should get you sorted.