This is the table
0 & 0 = 0
1 & 0 = 0
0 & 1 = 0
1 & 1 = 1

This is the truth table of the AND bitwise operator. In programming language every single thing is transalted into bytes, and smaller bits.
1 byte=8 bits.
Here are some info about bits: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bit
So, in your case you had a for from 0 to 9, all of that bitwise and with 1 (i & 1).
First of all we will translate every single i into binary:

Ok so, we have the numbers into binary, and we have the AND bitwise table.
We now have to bitwise and them together.
so we start with 0 & 1:

We have 0 & 1:

0 0 0 0 &
0 0 0 1
-------
0 0 0 0
//You take from the table every single digit.
//So first: it's from right to left: 0 with 1 from the table is 0, then 0 & 0 is zero. So the
//answer is 0 0 0 0.

We have 1 & 1:

0 0 0 1 &
0 0 0 1
-------
0 0 0 1
//0001 in binary if you check the table is 1, so the answer is 1.

We take 2 & 1:

0 0 1 0 &
0 0 0 1
-------
0 0 0 0
//0000 in binary is 0.
//don't forget, you have to check every single pair digit, so 0 & 1 is 0, 1 & 0 is 0 etc.

And you do that with every single number.

Hope I made myself clear:D

For example, if you bitwise & 6 with 13 it will give you 4:

6: 0110
13: 1100
0 1 1 0 &
1 1 0 0
-------
0 1 0 0
//which is 4 from the conversion table.

public class Main {
public static void main(String[] args) {
long timeCheck;
long periodOfTime;
ScheduledExecutorService scheduler = Executors.newScheduledThreadPool(2);
long initialDelay = 0; // ...