I successfully created a C++ window but got an error message when I tried to add menus. I will surely appreciate any help to fix the issue. As follows is the code:

#include <windows.h>

/*  Declare Windows procedure  */
LRESULT CALLBACK WindowProcedure (HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM);

/*  Make the class name into a global variable  */
char szClassName[ ] = "WindowsApp";

int WINAPI WinMain (HINSTANCE hThisInstance,
                    HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
                    LPSTR lpszArgument,
                    int nFunsterStil)

{
    HWND hwnd;               /* This is the handle for our window */
    MSG messages;            /* Here messages to the application are saved */
    WNDCLASSEX wincl;        /* Data structure for the windowclass */

    /* The Window structure */
    wincl.hInstance = hThisInstance;
    wincl.lpszClassName = szClassName;
    wincl.lpfnWndProc = WindowProcedure;      /* This function is called by windows */
    wincl.style = CS_DBLCLKS;                 /* Catch double-clicks */
    wincl.cbSize = sizeof (WNDCLASSEX);

    /* Use default icon and mouse-pointer */
    wincl.hIcon = LoadIcon (NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);
    wincl.hIconSm = LoadIcon (NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);
    wincl.hCursor = LoadCursor (NULL, IDC_ARROW);
    wincl.lpszMenuName = NULL;                 /* No menu */
    wincl.cbClsExtra = 0;                      /* No extra bytes after the window class */
    wincl.cbWndExtra = 0;                      /* structure or the window instance */
    /* Use Windows's default color as the background of the window */
    wincl.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH) COLOR_BACKGROUND;

    /* Register the window class, and if it fails quit the program */
    if (!RegisterClassEx (&wincl))
        return 0;

    /* The class is registered, let's create the program*/
    hwnd = CreateWindowEx (
           0,                   /* Extended possibilites for variation */
           szClassName,         /* Classname */
           "New Software",       /* Title Text */
           WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW, /* default window */
           CW_USEDEFAULT,       /* Windows decides the position */
           CW_USEDEFAULT,       /* where the window ends up on the screen */
           544,                 /* The programs width */
           375,                 /* and height in pixels */
           HWND_DESKTOP,        /* The window is a child-window to desktop */
           NULL,                /* No menu */
           hThisInstance,       /* Program Instance handler */
           NULL                 /* No Window Creation data */
           );

    /* Make the window visible on the screen */
    ShowWindow (hwnd, nFunsterStil);

    /* Run the message loop. It will run until GetMessage() returns 0 */
    while (GetMessage (&messages, NULL, 0, 0))
    {
        /* Translate virtual-key messages into character messages */
        TranslateMessage(&messages);
        /* Send message to WindowProcedure */
        DispatchMessage(&messages);
    }

    /* The program return-value is 0 - The value that PostQuitMessage() gave */
    return messages.wParam;
}


/*  This function is called by the Windows function DispatchMessage()  */

LRESULT CALLBACK WindowProcedure (HWND hwnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
    switch (message)                  /* handle the messages */
    {
        case WM_CREATE:(

       HMENU hMenubar = CreateMenu();
       HMENU hFile = CreateMenu();
       HMENU hEdit = CreateMenu();
       HMENU hView = CreateMenu();
       HMENU hHistory = CreateMenu();
       HMENU hBookmarks = CreateMenu();
       HMENU hTools = CreateMenu();

       AppendMenu(hMenubar MF_POPUP, (UINT_PTR)hFile, "File");

       AppendMenu(hMenubar MF_POPUP, NULL "Edit");
       AppendMenu(hMenubar MF_POPUP, NULL "View");
       AppendMenu(hMenubar MF_POPUP, NULL "History");
       AppendMenu(hMenubar MF_POPUP, NULL "Bookmarks");
       AppendMenu(hMenubar MF_POPUP, NULL "Tools");

       AppendMenu (hFile, MF_STRING, NULL, "Exit");
       AppendMenu (hEdit, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 1");
       AppendMenu (hView, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 2");


       SetMenu(hwnd, hMenubar);

       break;
}      
        case WM_DESTROY:
            PostQuitMessage (0);       /* send a WM_QUIT to the message queue */
            break;
        default:                      /* for messages that we don't deal with */
            return DefWindowProc (hwnd, message, wParam, lParam);
    }

    return 0;
}

i think your first switch case have problem ,

Yes, you're correct. I've changed it to (case WM_CREATE:{). I've further modified the initial code and was able to compile it. But I'm getting many warnings regarding "NULL". Moreover, there's a mysterious blank window called "main.exe" with black background that opens behind the program when I run it. The folowing is the modified code:

#include <windows.h>

/*  Declare Windows procedure  */
LRESULT CALLBACK WindowProcedure (HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM);

/*  Make the class name into a global variable  */
char szClassName[ ] = "WindowsApp";

int WINAPI WinMain (HINSTANCE hThisInstance,
                    HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
                    LPSTR lpszArgument,
                    int nFunsterStil)

{
    HWND hwnd;               /* This is the handle for our window */
    MSG messages;            /* Here messages to the application are saved */
    WNDCLASSEX wincl;        /* Data structure for the windowclass */

    /* The Window structure */
    wincl.hInstance = hThisInstance;
    wincl.lpszClassName = szClassName;
    wincl.lpfnWndProc = WindowProcedure;      /* This function is called by windows */
    wincl.style = CS_DBLCLKS;                 /* Catch double-clicks */
    wincl.cbSize = sizeof (WNDCLASSEX);

    /* Use default icon and mouse-pointer */
    wincl.hIcon = LoadIcon (NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);
    wincl.hIconSm = LoadIcon (NULL, IDI_APPLICATION);
    wincl.hCursor = LoadCursor (NULL, IDC_ARROW);
    wincl.lpszMenuName = NULL;                 /* No menu */
    wincl.cbClsExtra = 0;                      /* No extra bytes after the window class */
    wincl.cbWndExtra = 0;                      /* structure or the window instance */
    /* Use Windows's default color as the background of the window */
    wincl.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH) COLOR_BACKGROUND;

    /* Register the window class, and if it fails quit the program */
    if (!RegisterClassEx (&wincl))
        return 0;

    /* The class is registered, let's create the program*/
    hwnd = CreateWindowEx (
           0,                   /* Extended possibilites for variation */
           szClassName,         /* Classname */
           "New Software",       /* Title Text */
           WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW, /* default window */
           CW_USEDEFAULT,       /* Windows decides the position */
           CW_USEDEFAULT,       /* where the window ends up on the screen */
           544,                 /* The programs width */
           375,                 /* and height in pixels */
           HWND_DESKTOP,        /* The window is a child-window to desktop */
           NULL,                /* No menu */
           hThisInstance,       /* Program Instance handler */
           NULL                 /* No Window Creation data */
           );

    /* Make the window visible on the screen */
    ShowWindow (hwnd, nFunsterStil);

    /* Run the message loop. It will run until GetMessage() returns 0 */
    while (GetMessage (&messages, NULL, 0, 0))
    {
        /* Translate virtual-key messages into character messages */
        TranslateMessage(&messages);
        /* Send message to WindowProcedure */
        DispatchMessage(&messages);
    }

    /* The program return-value is 0 - The value that PostQuitMessage() gave */
    return messages.wParam;
}


/*  This function is called by the Windows function DispatchMessage()  */

LRESULT CALLBACK WindowProcedure (HWND hwnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
    switch (message)                  /* handle the messages */
    {
        case WM_CREATE:{

             HMENU hMenubar = CreateMenu();
             HMENU hFile = CreateMenu();
             HMENU hEdit = CreateMenu();
             HMENU hView = CreateMenu();
             HMENU hHistory = CreateMenu();
             HMENU hBookmarks = CreateMenu();
             HMENU hTools = CreateMenu();
             HMENU hHelp = CreateMenu();

             AppendMenu(hMenubar, MF_POPUP, (UINT_PTR)hFile, "File");

             AppendMenu(hMenubar, MF_POPUP, (UINT_PTR)hEdit, "Edit");
             AppendMenu(hMenubar, MF_POPUP, (UINT_PTR)hView, "View");
             AppendMenu(hMenubar, MF_POPUP, (UINT_PTR)hHistory, "History");
             AppendMenu(hMenubar, MF_POPUP, (UINT_PTR)hBookmarks, "Bookmarks");
             AppendMenu(hMenubar, MF_POPUP, (UINT_PTR)hTools, "Tools");
             AppendMenu(hMenubar, MF_POPUP, (UINT_PTR)hHelp, "Help");

             AppendMenu (hFile, MF_STRING, NULL, "New Tab");
             AppendMenu (hFile, MF_STRING, NULL, "Email Link");
             AppendMenu (hFile, MF_STRING, NULL, "Print");
             AppendMenu (hEdit, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 1");
             AppendMenu (hEdit, MF_STRING, NULL, "Select All");
             AppendMenu (hView, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 1");
             AppendMenu (hView, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 2");
             AppendMenu (hHistory, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 1");
             AppendMenu (hHistory, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 2");
             AppendMenu (hBookmarks, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 1");
             AppendMenu (hBookmarks, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 2");
             AppendMenu (hTools, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 1");
             AppendMenu (hTools, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 2");
             AppendMenu (hHelp, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 1");
             AppendMenu (hHelp, MF_STRING, NULL, "Option 2");


             SetMenu(hwnd, hMenubar);

             break;
}      
        case WM_DESTROY:
            PostQuitMessage (0);       /* send a WM_QUIT to the message queue */
            break;
        default:                      /* for messages that we don't deal with */
            return DefWindowProc (hwnd, message, wParam, lParam);
    }

    return 0;
}

Please, can anybody tell me what I'm doing wrong.

Edited 3 Years Ago by mexabet: spelling

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