```
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*-coding: utf8-*-
# Author: Gribouillis for the python forum at www.daniweb.com
# Created: 2012-01-14 11:44:25.230176 (isoformat date)
# License: Public Domain
# Use this code freely.
from math import log
def high_bit_order(n):
"""Return the integer k >= 0 such that 2**k <= n < 2**(k+1).
This is also the order of the last bit set in the bitwise representation of n.
Raise value error if n <= 0
* for n == 0, no bit is set.
* for n < 0, an infinite number of bits are set.
For example
high_bit_order(2368) --> 11
n = 2368 bits: 000000101001000000000000000...
n = -2368 bits: 000000110110111111111111111...
n = 2**11 bits: 000000000001000000000000000...
This function checks its return value and raise ValueError if an error
is detected.
"""
k = int(log(n, 2))
if k:
x = n >> (k-1)
if x == 1: # correct log() imprecision for very large integers
return k - 1
elif 2 <= x < 4:
return k
else: # very unlikely, but handled
raise ValueError("high_bit_order() failed on unusual value.")
else:
return k
def low_bit_order(n):
"""Return the largest integer k >= 0 such that 2**k divides n.
This is also the order of the first bit set in the bitwise representation of n.
Raise ValueError if n == 0. For negative n, the low_bit_order is the same for n and -n.
For example:
low_bit_order(2368) --> 6
n = 2368 bits: 000000101001000000000000000...
n = 2**6 bits: 000000100000000000000000000...
"""
return high_bit_order(n & -n)
```

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