Is python web programming anything like php?

Is there simple examples like submitting a form to perform a calculator functions etc?

Well you use a web framework.
Django is a good example; it is considered one of the best frameworks for web programming.
You can do some research on that.
Web2py is also great.

Is python web programming anything like php?

Yes you have python CGI programming.
A commen task in php is getting data from a HTML form.
Here is an example in python.
http://webpython.codepoint.net/cgi_unique_field_names

CGI is run from server side,so you can say it`s a sever side like php but you write in python.
So if you want to test it out use local server like xampp/wamp.

So there is possible to make a html form calulator and let python do calculations.

A more commen way is like postet over,to use a python web-framework.