In visual C#, there was this thing where you can add a settings file and refer to a setting in that settings file in your code. With that, I was able to save user settings easily. But I can't find it in C++. Is there no settings file option? If not, what are some solutions for saving basic strings or ints so that my program won't forget them later?

Write them to a settings file of your own creation.

In C++ for reading some static data you can use .ini format file.
Which is a format of configuration file.
For saving data one can use custom format.
And for limited data one can again use .ini format.

Can you give me an example of an INI file and using it with my code?

You'd be better off just creating a data file rather than trying to figure out the INI file format and the complexities of parsing it.