My english is not good, so pleas - understat me ;-)

I have two question about python ;)

1. I'm from poland, in poland letter a == ą, z == ź itp. Can i remove polsich letter?


in input - jacek bąk

in output - jacek bak

I can use unicode, but, how? or ... i must creat 'krtoka' - (1,2,3)

2. How fast, i can creat list of list



this list creat user

thank ;-)

Problem 1 (done with python 2.4)

# -*- coding: latin-1 -*-
# The first line is important and must be consistant with your file encoding (maybe utf8)
import string
t=string.maketrans('àéèëêôöîïù', 'aeeeeooiiu') 
print "lévitèrent à l'ïstrùmen".translate(t)

for python 3.1

# -*- coding: latin-1 -*-
t=str.maketrans('àéèëêôöîïù', 'aeeeeooiiu')
print ("lévitèrent à l'ïstrùmen".translate(t))

problem 2

for i in range(10):
    for j in range(1,9,2):
print mylist

# same result with list comprehension
print [[i for i in range(1,9,2)] for i in range(10)]


# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import string

x = []
text = raw_input()

t = string.maketrans('ąóęśłżźćńĄÓĘŚŁŻŹĆŃ', 'aoeslzzcnAOESLZZCN')

for i in x:
    print i.translate(t),

what is wrong?

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import string

x = []

t = string.maketrans('ąóęśłżźćńĄÓĘŚŁŻŹĆŃ', 'aoeslzzcnAOESLZZCN')

text = raw_input(u"> ")
for i in x:

print x

other cod, but don't run ... coding is ... xD

What's the error message ?
Probably a decoding encoding problem...
try things like

t = string.maketrans('ąóęśłżźćńĄÓĘŚŁŻŹĆŃ'.decode("utf8").encode("latin1"), 'aoeslzzcnAOESLZZCN').decode("utf8").encode("latin1"))

You can use a one to one dictionary
"ą" --> "a"
or use the ord/decimal value if there are codec conversion problems. A decimal value conversion dictionary would be something like:

conv_dict = {}
conv_dict[ord("ą")] = "a"
# and to convert
test_ch = "ą"
if ord(test_ch) in conv_dict:
    test_ch = conv_dict[ord(test_ch)]

jice, this example is not better, it show many error ...

woooee, thanks but i search short code and dynamic so who know something about this problem, wrire - pleas ... ; ]

Yes, nice but i must have some modules? unicode is basic modules in python?

What is your platform windows, linux , other ? Also what is your version of python, 2.6 ?
A good thing to do is go here http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setuptools and download and instal setuptools by following the installation instructions. Then in a console, simply type

easy_install unidecode

This works for all the modules in the Python package index (Pypi http://pypi.python.org). Then you can use the module.

Also note that the module name is not unicode but unidecode !

I can use function replace? For example

text = raw_input()

text.replace("ą", "a")

This code isnt run .. why? replace i can use for ... ?

Try to run this

import sys
def main():
    text = raw_input("Enter some words with polish letters:")
    print repr(text)
    print sys.version_info
    print sys.platform
    print sys.executable

and post the output here between code tags.
Could you download and run unidecode ?

Could you download and run unidecode ?

I download modules unidecode and instal, IDLE return for me error - i dont have this modules ...

i use win os ( i download installer for win, python 2.6 )

It's impossible, it's very easy to install. Try this

>>> import setuptools

does this work ?
If this works
1) open a windows console
2) type: easy_install unidecode
look at the printed messages. If it works, then restart a python shell and try

>>> import unidecode

if import setuptools doesn't work we are going to install setuptools first.

I tested the procedure on windows XP. I was able to install unidecode like this

C:\Python26\python.exe C:\Python26\Lib\site-packages\easy_install.py unidecode

In a cmd.exe terminal.

The problem analysis:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import string

x = []
a='ąóęśłżźćńĄÓĘŚŁŻŹĆŃ' ## utf8 has variable number of bytes
##a='boeslzzcnAOESLZZCN' #only changes b to a to test the end of the solution

print a,len(a),b,len(b)  ## here is why
t = string.maketrans(a,b)

text = raw_input("> ").translate(t)

print text

If you can use above mentioned premade module OK, otherwise use loop of the conversion strings and dictionary to save the mapping string1 -> string2. Save the strings as real unicode to have same amount of bytes per letter to simplify solution.

Greeting, Tony Veijalainen

Here some dict lookup code:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import string

x = []
a='ąóęśłżźćńĄÓĘŚŁŻŹĆŃ' ## utf8 has variable number of bytes



for i in range(len(au)):

print unpolish

def unp(a):
    for i in a:
        if i in unpolish:
    return t

print 'Unpolishing the conversion string'
print a,'unpolished is',unp(a)

a='ąóęśłżźćńĄÓĘŚŁŻŹĆŃ'.decode('utf8') ## utf8 has variable number of bytes
fixes the len, but still the variable number of bytes per letter confuse maketrans (and translate would not work)


This is my code http://wklej.org/id/314014/

This is 'simulator' send SMS, i must remove polish letter, but i don't how. I read many reply and i still don't now.

Pleas, i must finish this homework in few day ...

kur3k ( sorry, my english is no good )

Ok, last trial, can you *run* this file and *post* its output in this thread ?

# run_me.py
import os, sys, os.path

class Command(object):
    """Run a command and capture it's output string, error string and exit status"""

    def __init__(self, command):
        self.command = command 

    def run(self, shell=True):
        import subprocess as sp
        process = sp.Popen(self.command, shell = shell, stdout = sp.PIPE, stderr = sp.PIPE)
        self.pid = process.pid
        self.output, self.error = process.communicate()
        self.failed = process.returncode
        return self

    def returncode(self):
        return self.failed

def main():
        import easy_install
    except ImportError:
        print("Could not import easy_install")
    com = Command("%s %s unidecode" % (sys.executable, easy_install.__file__)).run()
    if com.failed:
        print com.output
        print com.error
            import unidecode
        except ImportError:
            print("Could not import unidecode")
            print("Module unidecode is installed")

commented: Neat Command object I could use to put command output to Tk text window +1

Could not import unidecode

why? i install for win ( file exe, for python 2.6 ) ? I have linux in virtual machine, but i don't like this os ( in this day xD ) so, what i must do now?

I try in cmd console, but i fell it dosent work ;<

I go today to my teacher, i ask ...

My next question for matrix, i must ( this word in polsih 'transponowac' ). In math wrtie for example A(T) - i search algorythimcs for this problem ;-)

Thanks for help all ;-)

Sorry for not having been here for some days...
Gribouillis' solution is probably better.
I have used the one i told you some times but I always have problems to adjust encoding and decoding parameters...
To help you, i need your errors messages...

So I explored a little my solution (which may not be the simplest).
In your case, you have to use an encoding parameter which is using the same length to encode all the polish characters. It seems to be iso-8859-13 as mentionned here
So, my example becomes :

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import string
a='ąóęśłżźćńĄÓĘŚŁŻŹĆŃ' ## utf8 has variable number of bytes

t = string.maketrans(a.decode("utf8").encode('iso8859_13'),b.decode("utf8").encode('iso8859_13'))

print 'ąóęśłżźćńĄÓĘŚŁŻŹĆŃ'.decode("utf8").encode('iso8859_13').translate(t).encode("utf8")
# .decode("utf8").encode('iso8859_13') : decodes the preceeding string using the utf-8 encoding and encodes it in a fixed length encoding defining the letters you need
# .translate(t) translates the string using the rule you mentionned
# .encode("utf8") reencodes (if needed) the result (here encoded in iso8859_13) in utf8

When you're not sure of which encoding you should use, you can try this code :

# These are all the standards encodings
encs=['ascii', 'big5', 'big5hkscs', 'cp037', 'cp424', 'cp437', 'cp500', 'cp737', 'cp775', 'cp850', 'cp852', 'cp855', 'cp856', 'cp857', 'cp860', 'cp861', 'cp862', 'cp863', 'cp864', 'cp865', 'cp866', 'cp869', 'cp874', 'cp875', 'cp932', 'cp949', 'cp950', 'cp1006', 'cp1026', 'cp1140', 'cp1250', 'cp1251', 'cp1252', 'cp1253', 'cp1254', 'cp1255', 'cp1256', 'cp1257', 'cp1258', 'euc_jp', 'euc_jis_2004', 'euc_jisx0213', 'euc_kr', 'gb2312', 'gbk', 'gb18030', 'hz', 'iso2022_jp', 'iso2022_jp_1', 'iso2022_jp_2', 'iso2022_jp_2004', 'iso2022_jp_3', 'iso2022_jp_ext', 'iso2022_kr', 'latin_1', 'iso8859_2', 'iso8859_3', 'iso8859_4', 'iso8859_5', 'iso8859_6', 'iso8859_7', 'iso8859_8', 'iso8859_9', 'iso8859_10', 'iso8859_13', 'iso8859_14', 'iso8859_15', 'iso8859_16', 'johab', 'koi8_r', 'koi8_u', 'mac_cyrillic', 'mac_greek', 'mac_iceland', 'mac_latin2', 'mac_roman', 'mac_turkish', 'ptcp154', 'shift_jis', 'shift_jis_2004', 'shift_jisx0213', 'utf_32', 'utf_32_be', 'utf_32_le', 'utf_16', 'utf_16_be', 'utf_16_le', 'utf_7', 'utf_8']
for e in encs:
        t = string.maketrans(a.decode("utf8").encode(e),b.decode("utf8").encode(e))
        print "%s : %s" % (e, 'ąóęśłżźćńĄÓĘŚŁŻŹĆŃ'.decode("utf8").encode(e).translate(t).encode("utf8"))
        print "error %s" % e
commented: Nice. I didn't think it was possible with translate. +3

First code dosent work, return error

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "C:\Users\Konrad\Desktop\testowy.py", line 6, in <module>
    t = string.maketrans(a.decode("utf8").encode('iso8859_13'),b.decode("utf8").encode('iso8859_13'))
  File "C:\Python26\lib\encodings\utf_8.py", line 16, in decode
    return codecs.utf_8_decode(input, errors, True)
UnicodeDecodeError: 'utf8' codec can't decode byte 0xb9 in position 0: unexpected code byte

Second code run, thanks - give me 40 mintues, i use this code ... ;]

I suffered a lot with these encodings with my anagram program. We have not accented characters but we have characters åäö here in Finland.

Problem is that while the program works in text console in windows, Finnish works normally cp850 encoding. When program is running with windowed environment it has different encoding. From my experiments I ended up with too versions of my code and data file with encodings cp850 and latin1 (or iso8859_15 I think is almost same with euro symbol). Unix environment can allways work in utf-8 and is simpler that way.

So my succestion is take out linuxes sensible encoding if the program must run in windows text terminal.

For more confusion see:

The console application (appropriate for raw_input use) becomes little simpler:

run cmd.exe and type chcp. Put the encoding in the header and code where I put cp850 (by search and replace, usally ctrl-H in editors). I proved the code for myself with cp850 and only åäö (which by the way is stupid encoding as cp437 is completely capable of displaying the Finnish letters and works with text programs which use characters to draw boxes. But that is usually forced by Microsoft to cmd.exe.)

I must use my language, please adapt to your language.

# -*- coding: cp850 -*-
import string
a='åäö' ## cp850 has fixed number of bytes

t = string.maketrans(a,b)

print 'åäö'.translate(t)

a=raw_input('Hyödyttömästi ääkkösiä, kiitos!\n')

print a.translate(t)

IDLE test!

IDLE 2.6.4

Hy”dytt”m„sti „„kk”si„, kiitos!Tarkoitatko hyödyttömästi?
Tarkoitatko hyödyttömästi?

Hey, it almost works! The printing with input from raw_input seems to adapt to cp850 in code. Only printing did not adapt. So when printing own literals, looks like better put them in unicode. Let's prove:

# -*- coding: cp850 -*-
import string
a='åäö' ## cp850 has fixed number of bytes

t = string.maketrans(a,b)

print 'åäö'.translate(t)

a=raw_input(u'Hyödyttömästi ääkkösiä, kiitos!\n')

print a.translate(t)


Hyödyttömästi ääkkösiä, kiitos!
Hei, nyt näkyy hyödyllisiä aakkosia!
Hei, nyt näkyy hyödyllisiä aakkosia!

Then we test same in cmd:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "D:\Tony\t.py", line 10, in <module>
a=raw_input(u'Hyödyttömästi ääkkösiä, kiitos!\n')
UnicodeEncodeError: 'ascii' codec can't encode character u'\xf6' in position 2: ordinal not
in range(128)


Not quite there for console. How about the other version (not u", but "):

D:\Tony>notepad2 t.py

Hyödyttömästi ääkkösiä, kiitos!
Hämmästyttävää, täytyy myöntää!
Hammastyttavaa, taytyy myontaa!


Works in console!

So other version (unicode) works with IDLE, other (8 bit chars) works in console.

Anybody has magic to put one version to work without doing if else with to strings or too version of input part.

If not, maybe I should try to make another version of raw_input, my_input!


@tonyjv Did you try the unidecode module for Finnish ?

@tonyjv Did you try the unidecode module for Finnish ?

Yes it worked OK.

More I often it is bad than good to use that kind of module.

One earlier anagram program had other similar utility always on. It makes sense if the vocabulary used has not those special characters. But anagrams from Finnish vocabulary with those letters changed does not make any sense.

I was by the way proving and posting same time. And if you look carefully the IDLE test was failure for input. Means other code version with first line with latin1 is needed for success in IDLE:

# -*- coding: latin1 -*-
import string

a='åäöÅÄÖ' ## latin1 has fixed number of bytes

t = string.maketrans(a,b)

print 'Take out äöå:'
print 'åäö'.translate(t)

a=raw_input('Hyödyttömästi ääkkösiä, kiitos!\n')
print 'You said:',a

print a

Take out äöå:
Hyödyttömästi ääkkösiä, kiitos!
Ällöttävä testi!
You said: Ällöttävä testi!
Allottava testi!

More exactly:

from unidecode import unidecode as ud
a=raw_input('Give text: ')
print 'unidecoded text:',ud(a)

Give text: hölmöläiset HÖLMÖLÄISET Åland
unidecoded text: holmolaiset HOLMOLAISET Aland

python -m says that unidecode is a package and can not be executed.

give me 40 mintues, i use this code ... ;]

This second code is only to help to find the good encoding (this is the hardest part)... Not to translate your whole file... It takes each encoding format and try to translate. If there is an exception, it writes "error".
The output shows you which encoding succeeds in encoding your file.

If the first programme raises an exception, you certainly have something wrong :
- the encoding line (# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-) MUST be consistant with the file encoding and the .decode() part of the commands.
- you've got some characters I hadn't in the string i used for my test and which isn't supported by "iso8859_13". If so, you can use the second part of my code to try to find another encoding format...

Hope this helps... Encoding is really tricky...