Yes, but only in a very limited way. You can use text functions in the console window. You can go into graphics mode, with the limited drivers that TC had, from back in the DOS days. Those still work.
I use TC for small text window programs - little puzzles and questions that you commonly see on the forum, here.
What you can't do:
1) Anything requiring more than about 400Kb. So all arrays sizes are limited, especially for structs and doubles. One program I wrote, using a small struct, is limited to just 700 max in the array of structs. For int's, it's 25,000 max.
2) Use the Windows API. TC has it's own extensions (mostly through supporting the header file "conio.h", so you don't need the Windows API for a lot of simple things - but that's not the same as having access to the whole Windows API, by a long stretch.
It's simpler, but a lot less complete.
So unless you are required to use it by your instructor, you should NOT start with it. With Windows 7, it's even worse to try and run Turbo C programs, requiring a special virtual machine. (Windows XP provides that virtual machine automatically for 16 bit programs.).