How can you possibly access a remote machine without using its IP address? YOu could use something like JmDNS to locate the remote machine, but you still have to use the IP address from JmDNS to access the machine itself.
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Just to kind of echo what JamesCherrill has said, it is impossible to access a machine without an IP address. The entire point of an IP is address is to provide a reference to a machine across a network. It is literally impossible to find a machine without it's ip.
Have a read around how networks work before attempting this if I were you