Some Linux distributions don't use /dev/dsp, such as Red Hat distributions. I am trying to figure out the equivalent but no luck so far, at least pushing an mp3 to the ones I thought might work. The common audio interfaces for Linux are ALSA and PulseAudio. They are generally accessed via system API's and not direct output to a device file.
It may be easier to use one of the many common widget libraries; some of them have very simple interfaces for playing sound, and the library takes care of the heavy lifting involved in interfacing with your operating system.