They're found in the source code of a language implementation. That is, Borland C/C++, Microsoft Visual C++, Dev-C++, gnu, etc. (And the implementation of the C or C++ language may itself not be in C or C++.)
What you get when you use C or C++ is a defined interface that will make available to you a function printf that will behave in a well-defined manner. Whether the actual source of printf is written in C or assembly or Pascal or whatever is not supposed to matter.
Why not run your code via the debugger and when you get to the printf function step into the function. If on your machine your compiler has the full source code for the libraries (i.e. Win SDK), then you should find the code.
For Each ctrl As Control In Me.Controls("pnlMainPanel").Controls
If ctrl.GetType Is GetType(System.Windows.Forms.Panel) Then
For Each subCtrl As Control In ctrl.Controls
If subCtrl.GetType Is GetType(System.Windows.Forms.TextBox) Then
If subCtrl.GetType Is ...