Under what circumstances would you look to exclude pages from search engines using robots.txt vs meta robots tag?

Pages you didn't want the search engine to index.

Okay, to be more specific, log-in pages to admin sections of a site.
Any other admin type pages, say for a CMS.
Members areas that might include a set of tutorials or pdfs or private info of some sort.

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Or are you asking which method to use?

AFAIK - neither will stop robots determined to sweep your entire site - only the well-behaved ones. But there again, you're talking SEO not protection right? Or the other way around?

Your cgi-bin obviously, login pages, form handlers, includes folders, images etc etc. I *usually* set a robots.txt file to disallow quite a few complete folders. HOWEVER, this is publically viewable, so the paths of your hidden files/folders etc can be known. Using the meta tag (nofollow, noindex) is another 'useful' addition.

Ensure that all 'hidden' files are protected so that they cannot be accessed without a secure login etc, e.g. bump the robot/user to a default page if they try to access without authorisation.