I'm new to c++, but I'm catching on just fine. I have a lot of experience with PHP, databases, and the like. I decided to learn a programming language that allows me to play around with things like sensors, gps devices, microphones, and anything you may plug into usb or integrated.

I'm having trouble finding any decent explanation or examples of anyone having similar things, or tutorials of how connections are typically performed.
Am I looking at the wrong language? Or am I just not googling hard enough?

You're looking at the right language, you're just not looking hard enough! =)

I don't want to say anything more than that. I'd rather leave the explanations to the experts, since I myself am tackling C++, running into more abstract problems than real-world ones.

C/C++ are considered best for system level programming.[1]
You should be using some more abstract language like Python ( I strongly recommended this language: its heaven ).
Strictly speaking, Python, C/C++ (in general all the well-designed languages) do not support such operation using just the core language only; you need libraries to work for you.
Nowdays, you get almost every libraries pre-written to do stuff for you; in most of the languages. So, its just matter to find the right library to do stuff for you.
In simple term, use that language, which have a library available to do some work.

[1]: It is just an opinion; although is widely accepted.