I can't load an image with Pygame, I've called pygame.image.get_extended and it returns false, is there any way I can fix this? What's even stranger, is that it was working earlier today. I don't remember doing anything to Python, Pygame, or OS X.

Since we don't know what your code looks like, try this image load and display test code and see if it works ...

# experiments with module pygame
# free from: http://www.pygame.org/
# load and display an image using pygame

import pygame as pg

# initialize pygame

# pick an image you have (.bmp  .jpg  .png  .gif)
# if the image file is not in the working folder,
# use the full pathname 
# in Unix file names are case sensitive
image_file = "Pooh.gif"

# RGB color tuple used by pygame
white = (255, 255, 255)

# create a 300x300 white screen
screen = pg.display.set_mode((300,300),  pg.RESIZABLE )

# load the image from a file
image = pg.image.load(image_file)

# draw image, position the image ulc at x=50, y=20
screen.blit(image, (50, 20))

# nothing gets displayed until one updates the screen

# start the event loop and wait until
# the user clicks on the window corner x
while True:
    for event in pg.event.get():
        if event.type == pg.QUIT:
            raise SystemExit