So I have a program that reads data/text files, with 1 number on each line and makes a binary search tree from it. When i insert a node, there should be two data variables updated, searchcost and key.. Key being the actual number of the element, and the searchcost is 1+the depth of the node. For data files that have numbers up to a certain amount insert works. But if it has numbers above say..3047 then the insert function gives a stack overflow error. Here is the insert method. Debugging says its coming from

``t = new BinaryNode(x,count);``

but I have no clue why.

``````BinaryNode *BinarySearchTree::insert(int x,
BinaryNode *t)
{
static long count;
count++;

if (t == NULL){ t = new BinaryNode(x,count);
count=0;
}
else if (x < t->key){
t->left = insert(x, t->left);

}
else if (x > t->key){

t->right = insert(x, t->right);

}
else
throw DuplicateItem();
return t;
}``````
2
Contributors
15
Replies
17
Views
8 Years
Discussion Span
Last Post by karolik

>>static long count;
>>count++;

Your program is incrementing an uninitialized integer and then you use that integer later on in the function. initialize it to 0 `static long count = 0;`

Edited by Ancient Dragon: n/a

>>static long count;
>>count++;

Your program is incrementing an uninitialized integer and then you use that integer later on in the function. initialize it to 0 `static long count = 0;`

I think it sets it to 0 by default but just for conventions sake I set it to 0. However i still get the stack overflow error. The funny thing is that when I enter in a list with 4095 numbers in random order, it does not give me a stack overflow...however when i enter in a list with 4095 numbers in increasing order (linear tree) it does....I'm pretty confused =/

Post entire code so that we can compile and test it.

Post entire code so that we can compile and test it.

Heh...its pretty long... the file 12l is the text document with 4095 numbers in increasing order. Just enter in "12l.txt" when the prompt comes up.

Edited by karolik: n/a

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1``````
``````#include "BinaryNode.h"

long BinaryNode::size(BinaryNode *t) { //recursive
if (t == NULL)
return 0;
else
return 1 + size(t->left) + size(t->right);
}
int BinaryNode::height(BinaryNode *t) { //recursive
if (t == NULL)
return -1;
else {
int hlf = height(t->left), hrt = height(t->right);
return (hlf > hrt) ? 1+hlf : 1+hrt; // 1+max(hlf,hrt)
}
}
BinaryNode *BinaryNode::copy( ) { // recursive
BinaryNode *root = new BinaryNode(key);
if (left != NULL)
root->left = left->copy();
if (right != NULL)
root->right = right->copy();
return root;
}``````
``````#include <cstddef> // to define NULL
#include "RuntimeException.h"
class BinaryNode {
private:
friend class BinaryTree;
friend class BinarySearchTree;

int key;
BinaryNode *left, *right;
long searchcost;
public:
BinaryNode(int el = 0, long el2 =0, BinaryNode *lt = NULL,
BinaryNode *rt = NULL) : //constructor
key(el), searchcost(el2), left(lt), right(rt) { }
// functions
BinaryNode *getLeft() { return left; }
BinaryNode *getRight() { return right; }
int getElem() { return key; }
long size(BinaryNode *t);
int height(BinaryNode *t);
BinaryNode *copy();
};``````
``````#include "BinarySearchTree.h"
#include <iostream>
#include "RuntimeException.h"
using namespace std;

BinaryNode *BinarySearchTree::findMin(BinaryNode *t) throw(EmptyTree)

{
if (t == NULL) throw EmptyTree();
while (t->left != NULL) t = t->left;
return t;
}

BinaryNode *BinarySearchTree::find(int x, BinaryNode *t) throw(ItemNotFound )

{
while (t != NULL)
if (x < t->key) t = t->left;
else if (x > t->key) t = t->right;
else return t; // found
throw ItemNotFound();
}
BinaryNode *BinarySearchTree::insert(int x,
BinaryNode *t)
{
static long count=0;
count++;

if (t == NULL){ t = new BinaryNode(x,count);
count=0;
}
else if (x < t->key){
t->left = insert(x, t->left);

}
else if (x > t->key){

t->right = insert(x, t->right);

}
else
throw DuplicateItem();
return t;
}
BinaryNode *BinarySearchTree::removeMin(BinaryNode *t) throw(ItemNotFound)
// private function
{
if (t == NULL) throw ItemNotFound();
if (t->left != NULL)
t->left = removeMin(t->left);
else {
BinaryNode *node = t;
t = t->right;
traverse(t);
delete node;
}
return t;
}
void BinarySearchTree::traverse(BinaryNode *t) throw(ItemNotFound)
{

if(t!=NULL){
t->searchcost--;
traverse(t->left);
traverse(t->right);

}
}

BinaryNode *BinarySearchTree::remove(int x, BinaryNode *t) throw(ItemNotFound)
// private function
{ if (t == NULL) throw ItemNotFound();
if (x< t->key)
t->left = remove(x, t->left);
else if (x > t->key)
t->right = remove(x, t->right);
else if (t->left != NULL && t->right != NULL) {
// item x is found; t has two children
t->key = findMin(t->right)->key;
t->right = removeMin(t->right);
} else { //t has only one child

BinaryNode *node = t;
t= (t->left != NULL) ? t->left : t->right;

traverse(t);

delete node;
}
return t;
}
void BinarySearchTree::display(BinaryNode *t) const
{
if(t)
{
display(t->left);
cout<<t->key<<"["<<t->searchcost<<"] ";
display(t->right);

}

}
long BinarySearchTree::sum(BinaryNode *t) const
{
static long count=0;
long count2;
if(t)
{
sum(t->left);
sum(t->right);
count=count+(t->searchcost);
if((t->searchcost)==1){
count2=count;
count=0;
return count2;
}
}

}``````
``````#include "BinaryTree.h"

class BinarySearchTree { // uses the class BinaryNode
private: BinaryNode *root;
// some private functions will be here
public: // constructor
class EmptyTree : public RuntimeException {
public:
EmptyTree() : RuntimeException("tree is empty") {}
};
class ItemNotFound : public RuntimeException {
public:
};
class DuplicateItem : public RuntimeException {
public:
DuplicateItem() : RuntimeException("duplicate item") {}
};
BinarySearchTree( ) { root = NULL; }
~BinarySearchTree( ) { BinaryTree::deleteTree(root); root = NULL; }
long size() {return (root==NULL) ? 0 : root->size(root);}
int height() {return (root==NULL) ? 0 : root->height(root);}
BinaryNode* findMin(BinaryNode *t) throw(EmptyTree);
BinaryNode* removeMin(BinaryNode *t) throw(ItemNotFound);
BinaryNode *find(int x,BinaryNode *t) throw(ItemNotFound );
BinaryNode *insert(int x,BinaryNode *t) throw(DuplicateItem);
BinaryNode* remove(int x,BinaryNode *t) throw(ItemNotFound);
void insert(int x) throw(DuplicateItem)
{ root = insert(x, root); }
void remove(int x) throw(ItemNotFound)
{ root = remove(x, root); }
void traverse(BinaryNode *t) throw(ItemNotFound);
BinaryNode *find(int x) throw(ItemNotFound)
{ return find(x, root); }
bool isEmpty( ){ return root == NULL; }
void display() const
{display(root);}
void display(BinaryNode *t) const;
long sum(BinaryNode *t) const;
long sum() const
{return sum(root);}
};``````
``````// merge t1, t2 and root (with rootItem)
#include "BinaryTree.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

// delete a tree rooted at "root"
void BinaryTree::deleteTree(BinaryNode *root)
{ // postorder traversal
if (root == NULL) return; // nothing to delete
if (root->left != NULL)
deleteTree(root->left);
if (root->right != NULL)
deleteTree(root->right);
delete root;
}``````
``````#include "BinaryNode.h"
class BinaryTree {
private:
BinaryNode *root;
friend class BinarySearchTree;
static void deleteTree(BinaryNode *root);
public: // class BinaryTree (cont)
BinaryTree( ) { root = NULL; }
BinaryTree(int el) { root = new BinaryNode(el); }
~BinaryTree() { deleteTree(root); root = NULL; }
// functions
BinaryNode *getRoot( ) { return root; }
bool isEmpty( ) { return root == NULL; }
int size( ) { return (root == NULL) ? 0 :
root->size(root); }
int height( ) { return (root == NULL) ? 0 :
root->height(root); }
void copy(BinaryTree& rhs) {
if (this != &rhs) {
deleteTree(root); // make tree empty
if (rhs.root != NULL) root = rhs.root->copy(); }
}

};``````
``````#include "Parser.h"
#include <iostream>
#include "Evaluator.h"
#include <string>
#include <fstream>
#include "BinarySearchTree.h"

using namespace std;
int main() {

long sum=0;
const char *x;
string filename;
while(cin>>filename){
x=filename.c_str();
ifstream infile;
infile.open (x, ifstream::in);
long num;
string line;
const char *p;
BinarySearchTree tree;
if (!infile)
{
cerr<<"Unable to open file"<<endl;

}
if (infile.is_open()){
while (getline(infile,line)){
p=line.c_str();
num=atol(p);
cout<<num<<" ";
tree.insert(num);

}
}
cout<<endl;
tree.display();

sum=tree.sum();

cout<<"Total number of nodes: "<<tree.size()<<endl;
double avg;
avg=sum/tree.size();
cout<<"Average Search Cost: "<<avg<<endl;
}
return 0;
}``````

nvm

Edited by karolik: n/a

nvm

Oh here are the 4095 numbers in random order...As you can see it works with that.

Attachments
``````913
2908
509
1002
1698
3624
3393
345
3937
186
221
3040
3741
862
2367
765
2687
2906
3392
1127
2526
1328
3664
1780
2914
2114
944
2415
3129
1081
930
3189
3558
1847
979
429
356
2830
1045
653
4034
3429
824
338
823
962
3997
3302
199
3833
2828
2791
1815
433
3708
3901
2715
2659
1631
505
3648
3696
3963
372
2057
3352
3380
4071
2557
2325
4078
3321
3388
2460
1384
3667
3556
2205
3845
2787
2909
2826
2876
1370
1200
4058
1036
1104
1834
1342
1892
2400
1432
77
2265
3546
2006
1823
1468
3193
3566
1950
629
3075
2053
963
2135
40
3463
31
2116
4054
4041
3593
28
4035
717
3415
93
3006
3405
2736
270
3303
1465
50
2653
701
1109
739
1989
3316
2036
693
1119
2861
3097
2705
1981
2201
416
1020
92
3329
2271
326
8
2898
158
2063
245
1512
1484
3571
1251
3941
19
1881
2567
593
2335
3960
2227
734
2755
3354
3827
3200
3686
1223
1951
1886
1790
367
2226
1315
1585
2208
1857
3719
1156
1100
3754
1571
628
2762
3981
3155
1141
206
2285
216
1157
265
564
1932
4016
3394
3437
635
3192
2004
4043
541
1319
3282
2252
2586
408
557
79
2899
2276
3820
3013
99
3699
4059
3000
2174
1616
2696
3110
4018
1726
2467
569
822
185
3494
1944
3811
1906
3142
3239
1024
3450
3622
2153
456
3616
1080
1065
121
3586
2378
1243
756
978
334
2059
3202
3341
188
1198
2892
2614
3588
1623
2808
1799
1097
806
732
2749
3416
1533
2487
310
2106
23
4006
3731
3052
236
2522
1545
1612
80
1674
3045
1193
1398
3162
3780
2930
2300
991
1199
666
1012
276
3180
1123
859
2316
3037
1938
3114
3908
1331
1879
3505
2108
2647
209
518
227
2042
2022
935
3585
48
2452
1844
2564
2488
1386
2341
1786
2070
325
3640
2778
478
1349
210
1107
702
3718
3363
3853
2811
1110
3898
3691
877
2277
2740
1481
1301
499
648
74
1197
2942
692
1904
2662
2128
1764
1431
484
866
1068
1044
1340
292
86
735
376
1230
2815
70
2139
482
39
1203
3803
3291
2468
3423
1668
1248
258
2223
3250
3568
1244
1641
982
2790
683
2127
3231
3788
3605
3930
2269
1518
3488
4084
2171
1788
3210
3209
3844
3197
1476
725
2281
641
4044
949
1876
652
173
3218
2001
2095
1561
1358
1588
3029
1802
3767
848
81
2162
905
1620
1675
1785
689
1771
805
1191
4007
531
103
729
3564
3800
2515
3550
163
2710
1806
3600
2638
2666
1371
3611
2385
793
1103
1143
3760
3476
1293
3591
1111
1299
1693
2440
3188
3112
2963
727
543
2051
1779
2132
2610
3001
1454
1714
1731
2975
2993
3290
3629
3797
3828
1791
2559
3859
1574
196
3095
1438
1896
883
3829
501
2677
1979
3770
2631
1078
3917
2426
642
2912
2263
2628
794
2745
2445
243
1863
1814
1816
2756
1817
252
118
3794
1697
1519
230
3824
3025
615
826
2577
2954
3211
3875
3053
437
3259
3982
1532
1987
1873
442
3685
599
551
2461
277
3274
3016
3237
96
1239
3384
2309
1690
1954
4023
1959
115
2175
2374
3940
3846
2763
1382
894
542
2547
3061
3641
604
2511
1611
1206
2750
1706
3208
3735
1207
1493
3276
617
1284
3261
1541
34
3284
2199
2447
25
1256
2788
865
2840
643
3487
837
4029
2027
2405
2773
1794
2578
1075
3956
1313
1330
94
3538
349
1647
992
4009
1411
3882
2703
533
29
1030
2554
1543
507
2303
348
3373
933
984
616
2741
1985
3632
2965
767
1421
237
2024
698
336
1086
358
3048
990
993
1173
2853
1241
2009
2350
2060
1034
3426
3655
4091
1467
2473
3289
3804
457
420
1622
1375
1564
1827
2229
2606
1407
746
2494
1898
2475
2676
3743
553
3474
4068
1492
1810
1713
2255
3238
399
1163
1592
1914
2838
3555
3672
1462
516
1715
2054
3410
1346
2283
1660
228
1217
3522
892
2784
3413
203
2234
2584
1744
3172
3589
3775
1357
1567
45
2905
3867
3983
3544
2910
106
1436
907
712
1470
3213
3991
1775
1351
2029
3897
1765
1688
1719
3054
2007
4088
3612
3660
764
849
3530
1196
2834
1506
303
2825
4036
3825
1608
2995
1265
814
279
3272
2123
1071
925
2133
3170
2394
1007
834
2157
2877
3949
4014
3574
2040
246
250
2272
194
2951
3738
514
148
4002
1910
1186
2000
4067
3993
3924
269
3807
1474
314
1395
1098
3857
700
162
224
3003
3674
3205
1645
3420
1084
1170
1915
1125
2777
2712
2270
1326
123
1803
2354
2872
1238
3020
441
1061
1885
3880
2794
197
1664
625
1542
2324
3869
2176
1218
1503
455
2509
733
3962
2121
3367
2184
3042
474
2752
434
1035
2499
2779
2500
337
1686
328
3400
1039
2159
2328
3745
52
1037
2141
3868
1732
1322
3181
3823
3078
3454
1183
3852
453
3247
3812
748
1942
1279
2047
773
1350
2590
3717
1341
1746
2807
2366
2887
1652
1901
1412
2663
2714
931
1763
3734
2311
3601
1128
1968
2237
2398
3771
2194
1905
3724
1166
1354
3712
136
4074
3774
3948
3919
3621
232
851
4083
139
396
114
3668
3438
2934
2347
2661
3570
2753
352
1392
3596
3063
2195
566
3369
3713
1424
804
3445
3953
3365
740
1426
2516
1573
1287
2730
1142
1753
309
2527
2685
2953
2327
2479
298
3176
463
1182
3761
1294
69
2083
3264
3666
1566
1997
3383
596
3597
3467
3964
966
3482
1479
1928
280
3481
890
2211
863
2082
3267
2122
468
3883
3501
2323
2204
1515
290
1466
54
1108
3064
2604
1805
3926
2935
1909
3998
2596
969
3606
2649
3281
3510
1998
3094
3813
1627
1308
3891
138
677
1691
10
3320
4040
2203
3702
3818
771
540
3954
357
3301
2512
3098
1276
425
3733
4079
985
1060
3843
332
1589
3216
2062
3160
3143
784
2929
3580
1842
324
1736
3989
3984
263
3035
3444
443
18
3618
1538
2163
521
481
1864
1773
3776
3008
1073
451
1159
1449
1396
2365
459
1410
1485
423
4027
1378
1095
2532
3293
1502
2810
1511
559
1560
2536
3360
2711
56
3543
2239
2969
3431
2137
2185
2228
1807
3377
1832
1841
3698
268
3736
301
3575
1232
4073
3594
3424
3091
1936
2944
3801
3171
3654
1049
1789
294
830
546
1499
2196
2273
1268
432
737
2849
2945
936
1523
1883
2181
3138
1681
3905
2187
3432
3679
4028
3581
2358
668
2519
3751
595
2670
1116
2931
2412
766
82
815
567
387
1309
1237
1076
1619
3961
893
506
1601
1427
3273
997
4048
3167
488
3390
1254
3521
2947
3058
3747
2403
2381
647
21
3936
340
688
586
1227
1228
3526
3119
2839
2142
1820
3215
1014
3326
1487
3514
2429
1050
1475
302
912
1583
3603
3385
3946
2858
3573
3927
3479
1941
3442
3235
1054
2034
405
1680
3174
315
1604
656
3701
1856
2817
3535
1961
3164
143
3175
1894
1853
911
873
3608
207
3092
2961
3988
1286
3809
3387
755
3028
2101
3088
697
3307
44
61
4053
2820
2989
1665
1855
494
1528
2903
1913
636
808
829
4069
3011
287
2732
973
2384
422
2140
3493
1599
2505
2420
2882
3168
1136
137
3395
3199
49
1787
2695
1266
2925
4031
889
1525
3854
3887
1530
3769
3787
444
2812
244
2018
2087
1778
3974
3322
1632
2372
1552
762
2768
744
2076
1091
3721
1304
3051
1085
1451
4055
2388
2109
502
613
1303
3746
2845
2213
777
2514
663
1130
2537
2605
1162
3714
1835
1325
1333
4089
792
2254
1761
1088
1768
1408
2534
3243
3464
4008
2701
3560
3715
2681
1610
1634
201
3324
293
2551
950
2020
3345
2182
1594
1463
308
3815
667
366
3268
264
3144
3245
741
1139
32
2657
3826
3446
847
3263
1320
3312
1273
855
146
703
248
3478
3406
3925
3626
486
1993
2576
2313
2392
1935
2743
2061
1258
3525
1556
3039
151
1537
2332
2984
1296
3107
267
2260
2709
2236
3337
2688
2371
4030
853
3397
2588
2301
3370
3587
2530
1966
1819
164
2333
1347
2671
220
3295
1051
903
603
1048
2462
3928
466
3335
2979
3889
1960
2134
939
3955
7
1005
3234
2131
2926
1699
532
1356
2250
3673
2241
3814
1526
3019
4004
175
1678
211
1324
58
3240
1348
1752
1593
3357
3462
810
2186
1923
1249
2795
3938
3999
100
2485
2442
788
2972
3553
2816
1490
583
708
409
343
1129
1240
2541
2572
3090
2846
4047
1747
3233
585
2193
2446
3531
3496
3050
846
3141
1743
800
1801
461
2902
3404
787
1181
1770
2297
360
1670
2444
1360
1274
2682
1190
1416
1939
769
2145
1818
781
510
2238
37
631
3739
994
1748
3294
3041
2433
255
2151
817
2334
1684
1428
346
554
3634
3391
1514
363
2894
3132
1535
1029
3503
3319
1548
2262
17
887
3841
1261
440
1500
3561
2678
2071
1215
2875
1661
1374
1696
513
3099
2988
3658
295
3362
528
464
3545
904
1740
2355
843
3076
831
3201
1399
116
1118
3542
1345
3922
2618
3089
3206
2524
2136
3684
3792
614
154
938
517
2099
3473
4070
1312
2150
3856
2742
2802
835
3361
1339
3528
715
2386
11
1443
1154
3972
341
187
915
1201
1550
3681
1126
2383
3047
2338
368
3007
3219
561
916
479
1846
1269
2033
3642
1365
2915
2497
4061
3072
3515
946
1013
3592
860
2482
2562
3106
238
2019
1565
791
3615
1618
3744
3083
1767
1667
811
745
2352
601
3678
2158
856
3100
1072
3665
2179
3349
419
552
3154
390
412
2259
627
72
3816
1861
2990
751
3786
1234
3351
1229
3286
1259
128
1869
749
2597
3966
1912
1756
2391
1164
3540
2393
401
545
3781
26
2973
2744
2401
954
1417
3773
3669
608
165
3347
2668
1363
4038
2716
288
620
602
2292
389
112
51
3551
4063
38
2251
2048
2438
972
36
251
1727
15
2593
1520
3292
2377
2924
2104
3070
353
2881
3044
675
4052
1891
3729
3034
2231
76
2245
2889
354
1650
2077
2351
127
2535
2
2437
1455
549
485
2198
181
2529
3066
2308
3014
1373
1153
1625
3027
3547
2119
286
3309
857
87
46
381
3886
465
3004
4017
910
577
2672
3169
723
2339
1843
1041
219
2550
3692
2747
2950
3399
3755
2561
1769
3026
2478
1336
3885
1052
2940
192
2466
579
403
113
46``````

You need to also post RuntimeException.h and its corresponding *.cpp file if there is one.

Edited by Ancient Dragon: n/a

Whoops, must've missed it.

Attachments
``````#ifndef RUNTIMEEXCEPTION_H_
#define RUNTIMEEXCEPTION_H_

#include <string>

class RuntimeException {// generic run-time exception
private:
std::string errorMsg;
public:
RuntimeException(const std::string& err) { errorMsg = err; }
std::string getMessage() const { return errorMsg; }
};

inline std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& out, const RuntimeException& e)
{
out << e.getMessage();
return out;
}

#endif``````

using vc++ 2008 express I get a lot of these warnings
warning C4290: C++ exception specification ignored except to indicate a function is not __declspec(nothrow)

The Parser.h you include in main.cpp -- it that one of your header files? There is also one in the Windows SDK, which is the one that vc++ 2008 express is picking up.

using vc++ 2008 express I get a lot of these warnings
warning C4290: C++ exception specification ignored except to indicate a function is not __declspec(nothrow)

The Parser.h you include in main.cpp -- it that one of your header files? There is also one in the Windows SDK, which is the one that vc++ 2008 express is picking up.

Parser.h is from another project so I don't even need that for my header. Actually i don't need "Evaluator.h" either...both are from another project. About the warnings...I just ignore them since the program works for the most part..

Edited by karolik: n/a

any more problems running it??

One of the problems is that when the current value (509) is less than the value at the root (913) there is no provision to insert the new value at the root of the list. Instead, it inserts it at t->left, but it should be added at t. Learning to format your program better to make it more readable might help you understand what is going on

``````BinaryNode *BinarySearchTree::insert(int x,
BinaryNode *t)
{
static long count=0;
count++;
if (t == NULL)
{
t = new BinaryNode(x,count);
count=0;
}
// t->key == 913 and x = 509
else if (x < t->key)
{
// this is wrong when x < t->key
t->left = insert(x, t->left);

}
else if (x > t->key)
{

t->right = insert(x, t->right);

}
else
throw DuplicateItem();
return t;
}``````

One of the problems is that when the current value (509) is less than the value at the root (913) there is no provision to insert the new value at the root of the list. Instead, it inserts it at t->left, but it should be added at t. Learning to format your program better to make it more readable might help you understand what is going on

``````BinaryNode *BinarySearchTree::insert(int x,
BinaryNode *t)
{
static long count=0;
count++;
if (t == NULL)
{
t = new BinaryNode(x,count);
count=0;
}
// t->key == 913 and x = 509
else if (x < t->key)
{
// this is wrong when x < t->key
t->left = insert(x, t->left);

}
else if (x > t->key)
{

t->right = insert(x, t->right);

}
else
throw DuplicateItem();
return t;
}``````

Its supposed to insert in the order that the list is given in...So 503 would be to the left of 913. Its not making a linear list with the random list. It works with the random list... However, its screwing up on the other list, 12l.txt...the one that starts with 1 and goes to 4095 in that respective order.

Edited by karolik: n/a

Ok, sorry I misunderstood. I won't be able to look at it again for the next 36 hours (sleep + work + honey-do-list).

Ok, sorry I misunderstood. I won't be able to look at it again for the next 36 hours (sleep + work + honey-do-list).

Thats cool, I understand..Unfortunately for me I need to get this done by Sunday and this is the only me stopping me from finishing it..programming wise. Out of 36 data test files, 12l is the only one that doesn't work =/.

I think i figured out the problem. Its making a 4095 number linear tree, with 4095 recursive calls and thus overflowing the stack....Now how to fix that is the next problem.

Edited by karolik: n/a