What is the exception that verifies if the input is in the specified sql range?

Your question seems a little confused about the role of exceptions in input validation. Do you have a specific example of what you're trying to do?

I was thinking that exceptions were like the java exceptions, like SQLException, Arithmetic Exception, ArrayIndexOutOfBounds. But i saw that that in javascript is different.

Have a look at this article on MSDN for C# exceptions.

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