`

```
//Header file: stackADT.h
#ifndef H_StackADT
#define H_StackADT
//*************************************************************
// Author: D.S. Malik
//
// This class specifies the basic operations on a stack.
//*************************************************************
template <class Type>
class stackADT
{
public:
virtual void initializeStack() = 0;
//Method to initialize the stack to an empty state.
//Postcondition: Stack is empty.
virtual bool isEmptyStack() const = 0;
//Function to determine whether the stack is empty.
//Postcondition: Returns true if the stack is empty,
// otherwise returns false.
virtual bool isFullStack() const = 0;
//Function to determine whether the stack is full.
//Postcondition: Returns true if the stack is full,
// otherwise returns false.
virtual void push(const Type& newItem) = 0;
//Function to add newItem to the stack.
//Precondition: The stack exists and is not full.
//Postcondition: The stack is changed and newItem is added
// to the top of the stack.
virtual Type top() const = 0;
//Function to return the top element of the stack.
//Precondition: The stack exists and is not empty.
//Postcondition: If the stack is empty, the program
// terminates; otherwise, the top element of the stack
// is returned.
virtual void pop() = 0;
//Function to remove the top element of the stack.
//Precondition: The stack exists and is not empty.
//Postcondition: The stack is changed and the top element
// is removed from the stack.
};
#endif
//Header file: myStack.h
#ifndef H_StackType
#define H_StackType
#include <iostream>
#include <cassert>
#include "stackADT.h"
using namespace std;
//*************************************************************
// Author: D.S. Malik
//
// This class specifies the basic operation on a stack as an
// array.
//*************************************************************
template <class Type>
class stackType: public stackADT<Type>
{
public:
const stackType<Type>& operator=(const stackType<Type>&);
//Overload the assignment operator.
void initializeStack();
//Function to initialize the stack to an empty state.
//Postcondition: stackTop = 0;
bool isEmptyStack() const;
//Function to determine whether the stack is empty.
//Postcondition: Returns true if the stack is empty,
// otherwise returns false.
bool isFullStack() const;
//Function to determine whether the stack is full.
//Postcondition: Returns true if the stack is full,
// otherwise returns false.
void push(const Type& newItem);
//Function to add newItem to the stack.
//Precondition: The stack exists and is not full.
//Postcondition: The stack is changed and newItem is
// added to the top of the stack.
Type top() const;
//Function to return the top element of the stack.
//Precondition: The stack exists and is not empty.
//Postcondition: If the stack is empty, the program
// terminates; otherwise, the top element of the stack
// is returned.
void pop();
//Function to remove the top element of the stack.
//Precondition: The stack exists and is not empty.
//Postcondition: The stack is changed and the top element is
// removed from the stack.
stackType(int stackSize = 100);
//Constructor
//Create an array of the size stackSize to hold
//the stack elements. The default stack size is 100.
//Postcondition: The variable list contains the base address
// of the array, stackTop = 0, and maxStackSize = stackSize
stackType(const stackType<Type>& otherStack);
//Copy constructor
~stackType();
//Destructor
//Remove all the elements from the stack.
//Postcondition: The array (list) holding the stack
// elements is deleted.
private:
int maxStackSize; //variable to store the maximum stack size
int stackTop; //variable to point to the top of the stack
Type *list; //pointer to the array that holds the stack elements
void copyStack(const stackType<Type>& otherStack);
//Function to make a copy of otherStack.
//Postcondition: A copy of otherStack is created and assigned
// to this stack.
};
template <class Type>
void stackType<Type>::initializeStack()
{
stackTop = 0;
}//end initializeStack
template <class Type>
bool stackType<Type>::isEmptyStack() const
{
return(stackTop == 0);
}//end isEmptyStack
template <class Type>
bool stackType<Type>::isFullStack() const
{
return(stackTop == maxStackSize);
} //end isFullStack
template <class Type>
void stackType<Type>::push(const Type& newItem)
{
if (!isFullStack())
{
list[stackTop] = newItem; //add newItem to the
//top of the stack
stackTop++; //increment stackTop
}
else
cout << "Cannot add to a full stack." << endl;
}//end push
template <class Type>
Type stackType<Type>::top() const
{
assert(stackTop != 0); //if stack is empty,
//terminate the program
return list[stackTop - 1]; //return the element of the
//stack indicated by
//stackTop - 1
}//end top
template <class Type>
void stackType<Type>::pop()
{
if (!isEmptyStack())
stackTop--; //decrement stackTop
else
cout << "Cannot remove from an empty stack." << endl;
}//end pop
template <class Type>
stackType<Type>::stackType(int stackSize)
{
if (stackSize <= 0)
{
cout << "Size of the array to hold the stack must "
<< "be positive." << endl;
cout << "Creating an array of size 100." << endl;
maxStackSize = 100;
}
else
maxStackSize = stackSize; //set the stack size to
//the value specified by
//the parameter stackSize
stackTop = 0; //set stackTop to 0
list = new Type[maxStackSize]; //create the array to
//hold the stack elements
}//end constructor
template <class Type>
stackType<Type>::~stackType() //destructor
{
delete [] list; //deallocate the memory occupied
//by the array
}//end destructor
template <class Type>
void stackType<Type>::copyStack(const stackType<Type>& otherStack)
{
delete [] list;
maxStackSize = otherStack.maxStackSize;
stackTop = otherStack.stackTop;
list = new Type[maxStackSize];
//copy otherStack into this stack
for (int j = 0; j < stackTop; j++)
list[j] = otherStack.list[j];
} //end copyStack
template <class Type>
stackType<Type>::stackType(const stackType<Type>& otherStack)
{
list = NULL;
copyStack(otherStack);
}//end copy constructor
template <class Type>
const stackType<Type>& stackType<Type>::operator=
(const stackType<Type>& otherStack)
{
if (this != &otherStack) //avoid self-copy
copyStack(otherStack);
return *this;
} //end operator=
#endif
```

`

```
#include <iostream>
#include "myStack.h"
#include <cstdlib>
#include <cmath>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int num;
stackType<int>stack1;
cout<<"decimal\n\n";
cout<<"to binary\n\n";
cout<<"Enter a nonnegative integer:";
cin >> num;
stack1.push(num);
while(num>0)
{
if(!stack1.isFullStack())
{
stack1.push(num%2);
num=num/2;
}
}
cout<<"The equivalent binary num is: ";
while (!stack1.isEmptyStack())
{
cout <<stack1.top();
stack1.pop();
}
cout<<"\n";
system("pause");
return 0;
}
```

I try to make program convert decimal to binary but, it adds the decimal number again.