Sarcasm aside, normally, you do this with a form that calls either the same or another php page using either POST or GET variables. Then, when the called page executes, you can get the data via $_POST['name'] or $_GET['name'] values. Post is better for stuff you don't want to be visible in the URL called. GET variables are included in the URL as in "www.xyzzy.com/phpfile?valuex=x&valuey=y..." so it is not appropriate to use GET variables for things like passwords, etc.
And finally, writing good PHP code is not simple! Having a good grasp of C++ and object-oriented development is critical (PHP is based upon C++). You want to minimize the amount of in-line HTML code you use. It is better (and more efficient) to construct your html output strings as variables in some PHP class, and then output them after all the parsing, GET/POST variables are extracted, etc. This also allows more sane debugging when necessary.