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1) What programming language has dominated scientific computing over the past 45 years?
Fortran.
2) What programming language has dominated business applications over the past 45 years?
Cobol.
3) What programming language has dominated artificial intelligence over the past 45 years?
LISP
4) What does it mean for a programming language to be reliable?
A language is said to be reliable if it performs to its specifications under all conditions. Type checking, exception handling, aliasing, readability and writability have significant effect on reliability of a programming language.
5) What is aliasing?
Loosely defined, aliasing is two or more distinct referencing methods, or names, for the same memory cell. It is now widely accepted that aliasing is a dangerous feature in a programming language.
6) What is exception handling?
Exception handling is an ability of a programming language to intercept run-time errors, take corrective measures, and then continue.
7) Why is Von Neumann bottleneck is important?
The separation between the CPU and memory leads to the von Neumann bottleneck, the limited throughput(data transfer rate) between the CPU and memory compared to the amount of memory. Since CPU speed and memory size have increased much faster than the throughput between them, the bottleneck is an important problem.
8) What arguments can you make for the idea of a single language for all programming domain?
I think it would be a good idea, there could be one language having some modules in it, so if I want to use it in web context, then I would use it accordingly, of I want to use it in windows development or mobile development, I could still use it. Thinking about it, .Net does something similar to that. For example, using c# I can create all sorts of applications, even it encapsulates javascript functionality in the language, so for silverlight applications you can use c# although it is going to render some javascript for the browser.
9)What arguments can you make against for the idea of a single language for all programming domain?
I think for some special needs, one way of programming just can’t fit. For instance, although c# is a powerful language for developing many types of applications, it is impossible to create an operating system using c# because the language is not close the hardware. For such needs C is the language of choice as it is really close to hardware.

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  • [QUOTE=serkan sendur;818422]Who do you think cares quality in todays world? Almost everything is about producing fast and consuming fast, you are American, you know what i mean..[/QUOTE] I'm going to haunt all your posts and make your existence on this forum a miserable one. Read More

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    Ezzaral 2,714   8 Years Ago

    [QUOTE=serkan sendur;818529]i dont violate any copyrights or so, so from their perspective my potential thoughts do not cause any problem. i dont violate any laws.[/quote]I did not mention violation of laws. Show them this thread if you are so proud of it. [QUOTE=serkan sendur;818529]By the way, one of the christian … Read More

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What is the purpose of this post?

For instance, although c# is a powerful language for developing many types of applications, it is impossible to create an operating system using c# because the language is not close the hardware. For such needs C is the language of choice as it is really close to hardware.

Reality disagrees with you.

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I think it would be a good idea, there could be one language having some modules in it, so if I want to use it in web context, then I would use it accordingly, of I want to use it in windows development or mobile development, I could still use it. Thinking about it, .Net does something similar to that. For example, using c# I can create all sorts of applications, even it encapsulates javascript functionality in the language, so for silverlight applications you can use c# although it is going to render some javascript for the browser.

Java can also do this.

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1) Write a few paragraphs on your desired programming languages. Explain some of the main characteristics of this language. Why do you like this language?
I like creating web applications, to achieve that I need one server-side one client-side programming language. As client-side programming language, I like javascript. As server-side programming language, I like C#. Javascript is an interpreted language. Almost every modern browsers support it. It is object oriented, very flexible, very powerful language. It can modify the appearance of your webpages, it can validate your data, its event-driven usage makes your webpages interactive. C# is a multi-purpose programming language. It is also event-driven. It includes functionality from C++ and Java. It has a virtual machine like java virtual machine. Ones you learn how to program C#, you can program for any platform from windows forms applications to xml web services.
2) Why were linguistics interested in artificial intelligence in the late 1950’s?
It was because some method must have been developed to allow computers to process symbolic data in linked lists.
3) In what way are scheme and Common Lisp opposites of each other?
Common lisp has got much better developed standard libraries, a well defined comprehensive spec and several implementations which provide some extensions, scheme has got a well defined minimal spec plus dozens of variously comprehensive implementations.
4) What are the two kinds of statements that populate a Prolog database?
The database of a prolog program consists of two kinds of statements: facts and rules.
5) Lisp began as a pure functional language but gradually acquired more and more imperative features. Why?
It was because many users of Lisp were already imperative language programmers and wanted to see similar usage in this language too.
6) Do you think language design by committee is a good idea? Support your opinion?
Yes I think it is a good idea because committees make languages standards, without them every individual may implement the language according to their needs, which will make the application maintenance impossible because of the differences in syntax and semantics of the languages. Committees also plan the things better than the individuals are able to do. So the final product lives much longer and from generation to generation.

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1) Define syntax and semantics.
SYNTAX is a system used to generate lexical and syntactic analyzers (parsers) (both deterministic and non-deterministic) for all kind of context-free grammars (CFGs) as well as some classes of contextual grammars. Semantics is the study of the meaning of linguistic expressions.
2) Using the grammar in Example 3.2 of the book, show a parse tree and a leftmost derivation for the following statement:

A  =  A *(B+(C*A))


<assign>   -->   <id> := <expr>
                A := <expr>
                A :=  <id> * <expr>
                A :=  A * <expr>
                A :=  A *  (<expr>)
                A :=  A *  ( <id> + <expr> )
                A :=  A *  ( B + <expr> )
                A :=  A *  ( B + ( <expr> ) )
                A :=  A *  ( B + ( <id> * <expr> ) )
                A :=  A *  ( B + ( C * <expr> ) )
                A :=  A *  ( B + ( C * <id> ) )
                A :=  A *  ( B + ( C * A ) )

3) Prove that the following grammar is ambiguous:

         There are two different parse trees for many expressions, for example, a + b + c

4) Compute the weakest precondition for each of the following assignment statements and postconditions.

a.  a= 2 * (b-1) -1          {a>0} :
2b – 2 – 1 > 0 then b > 3/2.
b.  b= (c + 10) / 3          {b > 6} :
(c + 10) /3 > 6 then  (c + 10) > 18  then c > 8.
c. a = a + 2 * b – 1     {a>1} :
    a + 2 * b – 1 > 1 then a > 2 – 2b 
d. x = 2 * y + x – 1 { x > 11} :
2y + x – 1 > 11 then  x > 12 – 2y

5) Compute the weakest precondition for each of the following sequences of assignment statements and their postconditions:

a.  a = 2 * b + 1;
b = a – 3          {b < 0}:
then a – 3  < 0 then a < 3  then 2b + 1 < 3 then b < 1
b.  a = 3 * ( 2 * b + a)
b = 2 * a -1      { b > 5 } :
then 2a > 6 then a > 3 then 6b + 3a > 3 then 2b + a > 1

Edited by mike_2000_17: Fixed formatting

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answers
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this are from the most prevelant programming language concepts book, people are searching for the answers for the questions that are assigned by their professors, i just want to easify googling and adding my contributions.

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So you are just posting answers to homework questions so students can Google them easier?

yeah, that is true. cheating makes you more clever.

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Fail.
"cheating makes you more clever", exactly like how bad reps increase your rep points.
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yeah, that is true. cheating makes you more clever.

I disagree. Cheating makes you a cheater and in addition to that: it's makes you a lazy b*stard.
How does this cheating thing works when you have an actual job? Tell me, I'm curious..

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I disagree. Cheating makes you a cheater and in addition to that: it's makes you a lazy b*stard.
How does this cheating thing works when you have an actual job? Tell me, I'm curious..

i have had an actual job since 2005; cheating removes the overload from your brain, many big companies support cheating.
think about all the money trap certifications, and the employers who take them seriously. cheating makes you faster, more productive and so on..

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>How does this cheating thing works when you have an actual job? Tell me, I'm curious..
Cheating when the goal of an assignment is to learn only hurts yourself. "Cheating" when the goal is to get a job done helps productivity, though not necessarily quality.

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>How does this cheating thing works when you have an actual job? Tell me, I'm curious..
Cheating when the goal of an assignment is to learn only hurts yourself. "Cheating" when the goal is to get a job done helps productivity, though not necessarily quality.

Who do you think cares quality in todays world? Almost everything is about producing fast and consuming fast, you are American, you know what i mean..

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Who do you think cares quality in todays world? Almost everything is about producing fast and consuming fast, you are American, you know what i mean..

I'm going to haunt all your posts and make your existence on this forum a miserable one.

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You got one recruit on that crusade in me.
brrrrrrrrilliant.
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. "Cheating" when the goal is to get a job done helps productivity...

In some cases perhaps. But if I'll give an example when you could be wrong:
What if I need a simple code-snippet, say something to convert an int to a string. I can program this piece of code from the top of my head, so I'm done pretty quickly. Now the person that learned how to cheat his/her way through everything will have to search for this on the internet, decide which of the many options is best for his/her problem and copy/paste it. I think this second person doesn't have a higher productivity.

...though not necessarily quality.

indeed.

Who do you think cares quality in todays world?

Well... me and my boss for example :)

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>Who do you think cares quality in todays world?
You fail. My opinion of you just dropped considerably.

>you are American, you know what i mean..
Apparently you only hang around with lowlifes and drains on society. I prefer to surround myself with people who wouldn't embarrass me if they met my parents.

>I think this second person doesn't have a higher productivity.
You asked how cheating works when you have a job. There was no requirement that the person doing the cheating had to be a leech who shouldn't have gotten the job in the first place. There are three kinds of "cheating":

1) Cheating because you don't have the time to write something yourself. This is where quality slips because you could be pinching a bad piece of code and won't be able to maintain it. This is lazy cheating, but it has its place.

2) Cheating to see how other people did something. This is what I encourage because not only do you learn, you also benefit from the effort of other people without expending the same amount of effort yourself.

3) Cheating because you're too incompetent to do the job without cheating. This is typically the result of cheating in school.

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Actually this cheating thing is a long conversation. If you base your philosophy on not cheating, then you become to be cheated. I dont think nature in general has any intention of rewarding not cheaters over cheaters, i think just the opposite.

For anything i say, i dont have any terminal thoughts, they are flexible, as long as i live they will stay flexible, so the things i say can not be associated with my personality since it is like a variable. I assign values and dispose them as neccessary.

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>If you base your philosophy on not cheating, then you become to be cheated
Cheat everyone else before they can cheat you, eh? That sounds like the perfect way to rationalize immoral behavior.

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>If you base your philosophy on not cheating, then you become to be cheated
Cheat everyone else before they can cheat you, eh? That sounds like the perfect way to rationalize immoral behavior.

look how dialectic our world is : i post this thread to help cheaters and they will end up seeing all the ethical doctrines of yours about cheating, and maybe they will quit the thread without copying the answers huh?

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I think the entire thread should be deleted. It's certainly in conflict with the "We only give homework help to those who show effort" mantra that can be found posted through the site.

I also have to wonder how your employer and coworkers would feel about the level of ethical flexibility you've pronounced in this thread.

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I think the entire thread should be deleted. It's certainly in conflict with the "We only give homework help to those who show effort" mantra that can be found posted through the site.

I also have to wonder how your employer and coworkers would feel about the level of ethical flexibility you've pronounced in this thread.

i dont violate any copyrights or so, so from their perspective my potential thoughts do not cause any problem. i dont violate any laws.

By the way, one of the christian missioners in my company gave me two dvds and i am totally persuaded that darwinism is just impossible because even the most primitive cell requires all at ones and simultaneous structures. i will post the name of that dvds later.

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rambling off-topic, wtf
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i dont violate any copyrights or so, so from their perspective my potential thoughts do not cause any problem. i dont violate any laws.

I did not mention violation of laws. Show them this thread if you are so proud of it.

By the way, one of the christian missioners in my company gave me two dvds and i am totally persuaded that darwinism is just impossible because even the most primitive cell requires all at ones and simultaneous structures. i will post the name of that dvds later.

This has nothing to do with the discussion at hand and belongs in the lounge.

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Bang on target !!!
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>i post this thread to help cheaters and they will end up seeing all
>the ethical doctrines of yours about cheating, and maybe they will
>quit the thread without copying the answers huh?
Are you so bereft of logical sense that you can't see how ridiculous that sounds? It seems a lot like you're using my replies to somehow negate the unethical nature of your thread. Are you implying that if I didn't reply, it would be my fault that the "cheaters" who read this thread are going down the wrong path in life and you're absolved of any guilt?

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Narue :

My understanding of cheating is not about copying other people's work, it is about getting rid of unneccessary stuff that you dont want to spend time with.

As an example, i am an asyncronous learner, i never learn something when i am listening to someone in the first place, or attending to class and listening to the instructor, i need to compile that to my own way of understanding. To do that, i need a buffer, which will give me time to meet instructor's needs, that kind of cheating is ethical for me, it is just a buffer between the needs of people around and you yourself.

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What? I cannot make any sense out of what you are trying to say there at all.

i am not a native english speaker, i plan to improve my english, i wont be offended if you show me my language mistakes and thanks in advance.

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I can follow the language just fine. It is the concept of cheating as some kind of "buffer" that eludes me.

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see these two links for example :
http://www.cs.gsu.edu/~akshaye/SolutionsHw1-2.txt
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_difference_between_context_switch_and_process_switch

these are the answers to the questions on wileyplus.com web site(you log on to it and answer the assignment questions to get a grade), so i think i benefit from that and save time. Why do you think these guys do that? what is their motivation? There are many websites for homeworks and assignments, why is that? You all know i am not alone posting homework questions..

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