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In a previous article, I explained [how to fine-tune Google's Gemma model for text classification](https://www.daniweb.com/programming/computer-science/tutorials/541544/fine-tuning-google-gemma-model-for-text-classification-in-python). In this article, I will explain how you can improve performance of a pretrained large language model (LLM) using retrieval augmented generation (RAG) technique. So, let's begin without ado. ## What is Retrieval Augmented Generation …

Computer Science hugging-face llm python
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I am a first-year university student from China. My major is Computer Science and Technology. I have been self-learning C++and data structures and algorithms recently. May I ask how I can learn them well? Is anyone interested in being my teacher or learning with friends? (Machine translation, my English is …

Computer Science c c++
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On February 21, 2024, Google released [Gemma](https://ai.google.dev/gemma), a family of state-of-the-art open-source large language models (LLMs). As per initial results, its 7b (seven billion parameter) version is known to perform better than Meta's [Llama 2](https://llama.meta.com/), the previous state-of-the-art open-source LLM. As always, my first test with any new open-source LLM …

Computer Science google-gemma llm python
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In a previous article, I explained [how to extract tabular data from PDF image documents using Multimodal Google Gemini Pro](https://www.daniweb.com/programming/computer-science/tutorials/541449/pdf-image-table-extractor-web-app-with-google-gemini-pro-and-streamlit#post2296083). However, there are a couple of disadvantages with Google Gemini Pro. First, Google Gemini Pro is not free, and second, it needs complex prompt engineering to retrieve table, columns, and …

Computer Science hugging-face python transformers
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Integrating language models like ChatGPT into third-party applications has become increasingly popular due to their ability to comprehend and generate human-like text. However, it's crucial to acknowledge the limitations of ChatGPT, such as its knowledge cut-off date in September 2021 and its inability to access external sources like Wikipedia or …

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In my previous article, I explained [how to convert PDF image to CSV using Multimodal Google Gemini Pro](https://www.daniweb.com/programming/computer-science/tutorials/541365/converting-pdf-image-to-csv-using-multimodal-google-gemini-pro). To do so, I wrote a Python script that passes text command to [Google Gemino Pro](https://blog.google/technology/ai/google-gemini-ai/) for extracting tables from PDF images and storing them in a CSV file. In this article, …

Computer Science llm python streamlit
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## Introduction ## In a previous article, I explained [how to fine-tune the vision transformer model for image classification in PyTorch](https://www.daniweb.com/programming/computer-science/tutorials/540749/fine-tuning-vision-transformer-for-image-classification-in-pytorch). In this article, I will explain how to fine-tune the pre-trained OpenAI Whisper model for audio classification in PyTorch. Audio classification is an important task that can be applied …

Computer Science audio python pytorch
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In this article, you will learn how to track faces within a video using the Python DeepFace library. Additionally, you'll discover how to include portions of the video background in face tracking by implementing custom methods that utilize the DeepFace library's `extract_faces()` method for face extraction. I explained how to …

Computer Science deep-learning deepface python
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In this article, you will learn to use [Google Gemini Pro](https://blog.google/technology/ai/google-gemini-ai/), a state-of-the-art multimodal generative model, to extract information from PDF and convert it to CSV files. You will use a simple text prompt to tell Google Gemini Pro about the information you want to extract. This is a valuable …

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## Introduction ## This tutorial explains how to perform multiple-label text classification using the [Hugging Face](https://huggingface.co/) transformers library. Hugging Face library implements advanced transformer architectures, proven to be state-of-the-art for various natural language processing tasks, including text classification. Hugging Face library provides trainable transformer models in three flavors: 1. Via …

Computer Science artificial-intelligence python
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In this article, we will compare two state-of-the-art large language models for zero-shot text classification: [Google Gemini Pro](https://deepmind.google/technologies/gemini/#introduction) and [OpenAI GPT-4](https://openai.com/research/gpt-4). Zero-shot text classification is a task where a model is trained on a set of labeled examples but can then classify new examples from previously unseen classes. This is …

Computer Science chat-gpt gemini-pro python
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I recently tackled a challenging research task involving multimodal data for a classification problem using [TensorFlow Keras](https://www.tensorflow.org/guide/keras). One of the trickiest aspects was figuring out how to load multimodal data in batches from storage efficiently. While TensorFlow Keras offers helpful functions for batch-loading images from various sources, the documentation and …

Computer Science python tensorflow-keras
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Sentiment analysis, a subfield of Natural Language Processing (NLP), aims to discern and classify the underlying sentiment or emotion expressed in textual data. Whether it is understanding customers' opinions about a product, analyzing social media posts, or gauging public sentiment towards a political event, sentiment analysis plays a vital role …

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In a [previous tutorial](https://www.daniweb.com/programming/computer-science/tutorials/541123/stock-price-prediction-using-1d-cnn-in-tensorflow-keras), I covered how to predict future stock prices using a deep learning model with 1D CNN layers. This method is effective for basic time series forecasting. Recently, I've enhanced this model by not just considering past closing prices but also factors like Open, High, Low, Volume, …

Computer Science algorithm python tensorflow-keras
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A video is a series of images, or frames, shown in rapid succession. Its frame rate, measured in frames per second (FPS), dictates the display speed. For instance, a 30 FPS video shows 30 frames each second. The frame count and frame rate determine a video's detail, smoothness, file size, …

Computer Science deepface moviepy python
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## Introduction ## Loss functions are the driving force behind all machine learning algorithms. They quantify how well our models are performing by calculating the difference between the predicted and actual outcomes. The goal of every machine learning algorithm is to minimize this loss function, thereby improving the model’s accuracy. …

Computer Science keras python pytorch
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As a researcher, I have often found myself buried under a mountain of research articles, each promising insights and breakthroughs crucial for my work. The sheer volume of information is overwhelming, and the time it takes to extract the relevant data can be daunting. However, extracting meaningful information from research …

Computer Science langchain llm python
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Facial emotion detection, as the name suggests, involves detecting emotions from faces in images or videos. Recently, I was working on a facial emotion detection task and came across the DeepFace library that implements various state-of-the-art facial emotion detection models. However, in my experience, the performance of the DeepFace library …

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Stock price prediction is a challenging task that requires analyzing historical trends, market sentiments, economic indicators, and company performance. One of the popular methods for stock price prediction is using deep learning models, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs). CNNs are a type of neural network that can extract features …

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Chatbots are software applications that can interact with humans using natural language. They can be used for various purposes, such as customer service, entertainment, education, and more. Chatbots can be built using different techniques like rule-based systems, machine learning, or deep learning. In this article, I will focus on the …

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Language modeling is the cornerstone of advanced natural language processing, forming the backbone for cutting-edge technologies like ChatGPT. At its core, it involves predicting words based on context, a fundamental principle underlying modern large language Models (LLMs). There are various techniques for language modeling, with attention mechanisms emerging as the …

Computer Science llm python tensorflow-keras
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In this tutorial, you will learn to fine-tune a [Hugging Face Transformers model](https://huggingface.co/docs/transformers/index) for video classification in PyTorch. The Hugging Face documentation provides an example of performing video classification using the Hugging Face Trainer with one of Hugging Face's built-in datasets. However, the process of fine-tuning a video transformer on …

Computer Science hugging-face python transformers
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## Introduction ## In the realm of computer vision, [Vision Transformers (ViTs)](https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.11929) revolutionized image processing by employing self-attention mechanisms, allowing for a non-sequential analysis of images. ViTs are instrumental in capturing intricate patterns and long-range dependencies, making them invaluable for tasks like image recognition and object detection. Hugging Face, a …

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In one of my research projects, I needed to extract text from video files and create a CSV file that included sentiments expressed in the text. Manual extraction was time-consuming and costly. So, I explored Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems and discovered OpenAI [Whisper](https://openai.com/research/whisper), known for its high accuracy in …

Computer Science pandas python
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In a previous article, I showed you [how to analyze sentiments using Chat-GPT and data augmentation techniques](https://www.daniweb.com/programming/computer-science/tutorials/540502/sentiment-analysis-with-data-augmentation-using-chatgpt#post2293643). Following that, some readers reached out, asking for a breakdown of fine-tuning a Chat-GPT model. In this article, I will guide you through fine-tuning your Chat-GPT model using your own data. First, I'll …

Computer Science chat-gpt python
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In my recent journey of developing various AI solutions powered by Language Models (LLMs), a significant question has emerged: Should we harness the capabilities of Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG), or should we opt for the path of custom fine-tuning? This decision can profoundly impact the performance and adaptability of our …

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Lexicographic algorithm I'm trying to make this algorithm work, but it keeps telling me that my declaration array is not correct because it needs to have a constant value. Array declaration can be found in the main #include<iostream> #include<array> using namespace std; void nextPermutation(char* v, int n) { //function declaration …

Computer Science algorithm c++ project-ideas
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Construct an algorithm that has input an integer n ≥ 1, numbers x0, x1,...,xn, and a number x and that produces as output the product (x-xo)(x-x1)(x - xn).

Computer Science algorithm
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Data annotation for text classification is time-consuming and expensive. In the case of smaller training datasets, pre-trained ChatGPT models might achieve higher classification accuracy on test sets than training classifiers from scratch or fine-tuning existing models. Additionally, ChatGPT can aid in annotating data for fine-tuning text classification models. In this …

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I am trying to understand Boyer Moore algorithm & KMP algorithm (Knuth Morris Pratt)? I tried some places like GeeksForGeeks, TutorialsPoint etc. But I have still some doubts. If you guys have some resources or videos where these algorithms are explained in somewhat simple terms, please share them. First I …

Computer Science algorithm big-o
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The End.