i have a simple question:
I want to define a hex character array in C,
but I don't want to have to define the elements one at a time.

my programme needs an hexadecimal array as input of 128 bits. for example,

``unsigned char temp2[32]= {0x00  ,0x11  ,0x22  ,0x33  ,0x44  ,0x55  ,0x66  ,0x77  ,0x88  ,0x99  ,0xaa  ,0xbb  ,0xcc  ,0xdd  ,0xee  ,0xff};``

the variable temp2 values need to be assigned dynamically.. since i have another integer array of size 32.e.g.

``paintext[32]={0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15}``

which will be converted to hexadecimal and dynamically allocated to temp2
___________________________________________________________________________________
I am exactly working on AES algorithm here is total code

``````#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>

// The number of columns comprising a state in AES. This is a constant in AES. Value=4
#define Nb 4

// The number of rounds in AES Cipher. It is simply initiated to zero. The actual value is recieved in the program.
int Nr=0;

// The number of 32 bit words in the key. It is simply initiated to zero. The actual value is recieved in the program.
int Nk=0;

// in - it is the array that holds the plain text to be encrypted.
// out - it is the array that holds the key for encryption.
// state - the array that holds the intermediate results during encryption.
unsigned char in[16], out[16], state[4][4];

// The array that stores the round keys.
unsigned char RoundKey[240];

// The Key input to the AES Program
unsigned char Key[32];
// The array temp stores the key.
// The array temp2 stores the plaintext.
unsigned char temp[32] = {0x00  ,0x01  ,0x02  ,0x03  ,0x04  ,0x05  ,0x06  ,0x07  ,0x08  ,0x09  ,0x0a  ,0x0b  ,0x0c  ,0x0d  ,0x0e  ,0x0f};
unsigned char temp2[32]= {0x00  ,0x11  ,0x22  ,0x33  ,0x44  ,0x55  ,0x66  ,0x77  ,0x88  ,0x99  ,0xaa  ,0xbb  ,0xcc  ,0xdd  ,0xee  ,0xff};

int getSBoxValue(int num)
{
int sbox[256] =   {
//0     1    2      3     4    5     6     7      8    9     A      B    C     D     E     F
0x63, 0x7c, 0x77, 0x7b, 0xf2, 0x6b, 0x6f, 0xc5, 0x30, 0x01, 0x67, 0x2b, 0xfe, 0xd7, 0xab, 0x76, //0
0xca, 0x82, 0xc9, 0x7d, 0xfa, 0x59, 0x47, 0xf0, 0xad, 0xd4, 0xa2, 0xaf, 0x9c, 0xa4, 0x72, 0xc0, //1
0xb7, 0xfd, 0x93, 0x26, 0x36, 0x3f, 0xf7, 0xcc, 0x34, 0xa5, 0xe5, 0xf1, 0x71, 0xd8, 0x31, 0x15, //2
0x04, 0xc7, 0x23, 0xc3, 0x18, 0x96, 0x05, 0x9a, 0x07, 0x12, 0x80, 0xe2, 0xeb, 0x27, 0xb2, 0x75, //3
0x09, 0x83, 0x2c, 0x1a, 0x1b, 0x6e, 0x5a, 0xa0, 0x52, 0x3b, 0xd6, 0xb3, 0x29, 0xe3, 0x2f, 0x84, //4
0x53, 0xd1, 0x00, 0xed, 0x20, 0xfc, 0xb1, 0x5b, 0x6a, 0xcb, 0xbe, 0x39, 0x4a, 0x4c, 0x58, 0xcf, //5
0xd0, 0xef, 0xaa, 0xfb, 0x43, 0x4d, 0x33, 0x85, 0x45, 0xf9, 0x02, 0x7f, 0x50, 0x3c, 0x9f, 0xa8, //6
0x51, 0xa3, 0x40, 0x8f, 0x92, 0x9d, 0x38, 0xf5, 0xbc, 0xb6, 0xda, 0x21, 0x10, 0xff, 0xf3, 0xd2, //7
0xcd, 0x0c, 0x13, 0xec, 0x5f, 0x97, 0x44, 0x17, 0xc4, 0xa7, 0x7e, 0x3d, 0x64, 0x5d, 0x19, 0x73, //8
0x60, 0x81, 0x4f, 0xdc, 0x22, 0x2a, 0x90, 0x88, 0x46, 0xee, 0xb8, 0x14, 0xde, 0x5e, 0x0b, 0xdb, //9
0xe0, 0x32, 0x3a, 0x0a, 0x49, 0x06, 0x24, 0x5c, 0xc2, 0xd3, 0xac, 0x62, 0x91, 0x95, 0xe4, 0x79, //A
0xe7, 0xc8, 0x37, 0x6d, 0x8d, 0xd5, 0x4e, 0xa9, 0x6c, 0x56, 0xf4, 0xea, 0x65, 0x7a, 0xae, 0x08, //B
0xba, 0x78, 0x25, 0x2e, 0x1c, 0xa6, 0xb4, 0xc6, 0xe8, 0xdd, 0x74, 0x1f, 0x4b, 0xbd, 0x8b, 0x8a, //C
0x70, 0x3e, 0xb5, 0x66, 0x48, 0x03, 0xf6, 0x0e, 0x61, 0x35, 0x57, 0xb9, 0x86, 0xc1, 0x1d, 0x9e, //D
0xe1, 0xf8, 0x98, 0x11, 0x69, 0xd9, 0x8e, 0x94, 0x9b, 0x1e, 0x87, 0xe9, 0xce, 0x55, 0x28, 0xdf, //E
0x8c, 0xa1, 0x89, 0x0d, 0xbf, 0xe6, 0x42, 0x68, 0x41, 0x99, 0x2d, 0x0f, 0xb0, 0x54, 0xbb, 0x16 }; //F
return sbox[num];
}

// The round constant word array, Rcon[i], contains the values given by
// x to th e power (i-1) being powers of x (x is denoted as {02}) in the field GF(28)
// Note that i starts at 1, not 0).
int Rcon[255] = {
0x8d, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80, 0x1b, 0x36, 0x6c, 0xd8, 0xab, 0x4d, 0x9a,
0x2f, 0x5e, 0xbc, 0x63, 0xc6, 0x97, 0x35, 0x6a, 0xd4, 0xb3, 0x7d, 0xfa, 0xef, 0xc5, 0x91, 0x39,
0x72, 0xe4, 0xd3, 0xbd, 0x61, 0xc2, 0x9f, 0x25, 0x4a, 0x94, 0x33, 0x66, 0xcc, 0x83, 0x1d, 0x3a,
0x74, 0xe8, 0xcb, 0x8d, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80, 0x1b, 0x36, 0x6c, 0xd8,
0xab, 0x4d, 0x9a, 0x2f, 0x5e, 0xbc, 0x63, 0xc6, 0x97, 0x35, 0x6a, 0xd4, 0xb3, 0x7d, 0xfa, 0xef,
0xc5, 0x91, 0x39, 0x72, 0xe4, 0xd3, 0xbd, 0x61, 0xc2, 0x9f, 0x25, 0x4a, 0x94, 0x33, 0x66, 0xcc,
0x83, 0x1d, 0x3a, 0x74, 0xe8, 0xcb, 0x8d, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80, 0x1b,
0x36, 0x6c, 0xd8, 0xab, 0x4d, 0x9a, 0x2f, 0x5e, 0xbc, 0x63, 0xc6, 0x97, 0x35, 0x6a, 0xd4, 0xb3,
0x7d, 0xfa, 0xef, 0xc5, 0x91, 0x39, 0x72, 0xe4, 0xd3, 0xbd, 0x61, 0xc2, 0x9f, 0x25, 0x4a, 0x94,
0x33, 0x66, 0xcc, 0x83, 0x1d, 0x3a, 0x74, 0xe8, 0xcb, 0x8d, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20,
0x40, 0x80, 0x1b, 0x36, 0x6c, 0xd8, 0xab, 0x4d, 0x9a, 0x2f, 0x5e, 0xbc, 0x63, 0xc6, 0x97, 0x35,
0x6a, 0xd4, 0xb3, 0x7d, 0xfa, 0xef, 0xc5, 0x91, 0x39, 0x72, 0xe4, 0xd3, 0xbd, 0x61, 0xc2, 0x9f,
0x25, 0x4a, 0x94, 0x33, 0x66, 0xcc, 0x83, 0x1d, 0x3a, 0x74, 0xe8, 0xcb, 0x8d, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04,
0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80, 0x1b, 0x36, 0x6c, 0xd8, 0xab, 0x4d, 0x9a, 0x2f, 0x5e, 0xbc, 0x63,
0xc6, 0x97, 0x35, 0x6a, 0xd4, 0xb3, 0x7d, 0xfa, 0xef, 0xc5, 0x91, 0x39, 0x72, 0xe4, 0xd3, 0xbd,
0x61, 0xc2, 0x9f, 0x25, 0x4a, 0x94, 0x33, 0x66, 0xcc, 0x83, 0x1d, 0x3a, 0x74, 0xe8, 0xcb  };

// This function produces Nb(Nr+1) round keys. The round keys are used in each round to encrypt the states.
void KeyExpansion()
{
int i,j;
unsigned char temp[4],k;

// The first round key is the key itself.
for(i=0;i<Nk;i++)
{
RoundKey[i*4]=Key[i*4];
RoundKey[i*4+1]=Key[i*4+1];
RoundKey[i*4+2]=Key[i*4+2];
RoundKey[i*4+3]=Key[i*4+3];
}

// All other round keys are found from the previous round keys.
while (i < (Nb * (Nr+1)))
{
for(j=0;j<4;j++)
{
temp[j]=RoundKey[(i-1) * 4 + j];
}
if (i % Nk == 0)
{
// This function rotates the 4 bytes in a word to the left once.
// [a0,a1,a2,a3] becomes [a1,a2,a3,a0]

// Function RotWord()
{
k = temp[0];
temp[0] = temp[1];
temp[1] = temp[2];
temp[2] = temp[3];
temp[3] = k;
}

// SubWord() is a function that takes a four-byte input word and
// applies the S-box to each of the four bytes to produce an output word.

// Function Subword()
{
temp[0]=getSBoxValue(temp[0]);
temp[1]=getSBoxValue(temp[1]);
temp[2]=getSBoxValue(temp[2]);
temp[3]=getSBoxValue(temp[3]);
}

temp[0] =  temp[0] ^ Rcon[i/Nk];
}
else if (Nk > 6 && i % Nk == 4)
{
// Function Subword()
{
temp[0]=getSBoxValue(temp[0]);
temp[1]=getSBoxValue(temp[1]);
temp[2]=getSBoxValue(temp[2]);
temp[3]=getSBoxValue(temp[3]);
}
}
RoundKey[i*4+0] = RoundKey[(i-Nk)*4+0] ^ temp[0];
RoundKey[i*4+1] = RoundKey[(i-Nk)*4+1] ^ temp[1];
RoundKey[i*4+2] = RoundKey[(i-Nk)*4+2] ^ temp[2];
RoundKey[i*4+3] = RoundKey[(i-Nk)*4+3] ^ temp[3];
i++;
}
}

// This function adds the round key to state.
// The round key is added to the state by an XOR function.
{
int i,j;
for(i=0;i<4;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<4;j++)
{
state[j][i] ^= RoundKey[round * Nb * 4 + i * Nb + j];
}
}
}

// The SubBytes Function Substitutes the values in the
// state matrix with values in an S-box.
void SubBytes()
{
int i,j;
for(i=0;i<4;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<4;j++)
{
state[i][j] = getSBoxValue(state[i][j]);

}
}
}

// The ShiftRows() function shifts the rows in the state to the left.
// Each row is shifted with different offset.
// Offset = Row number. So the first row is not shifted.
void ShiftRows()
{
unsigned char temp;

// Rotate first row 1 columns to left
temp=state[1][0];
state[1][0]=state[1][1];
state[1][1]=state[1][2];
state[1][2]=state[1][3];
state[1][3]=temp;

// Rotate second row 2 columns to left
temp=state[2][0];
state[2][0]=state[2][2];
state[2][2]=temp;

temp=state[2][1];
state[2][1]=state[2][3];
state[2][3]=temp;

// Rotate third row 3 columns to left
temp=state[3][0];
state[3][0]=state[3][3];
state[3][3]=state[3][2];
state[3][2]=state[3][1];
state[3][1]=temp;
}

// xtime is a macro that finds the product of {02} and the argument to xtime modulo {1b}
#define xtime(x)   ((x<<1) ^ (((x>>7) & 1) * 0x1b))

// MixColumns function mixes the columns of the state matrix
void MixColumns()
{
int i;
unsigned char Tmp,Tm,t;
for(i=0;i<4;i++)
{
t=state[0][i];
Tmp = state[0][i] ^ state[1][i] ^ state[2][i] ^ state[3][i] ;
Tm = state[0][i] ^ state[1][i] ; Tm = xtime(Tm); state[0][i] ^= Tm ^ Tmp ;
Tm = state[1][i] ^ state[2][i] ; Tm = xtime(Tm); state[1][i] ^= Tm ^ Tmp ;
Tm = state[2][i] ^ state[3][i] ; Tm = xtime(Tm); state[2][i] ^= Tm ^ Tmp ;
Tm = state[3][i] ^ t ; Tm = xtime(Tm); state[3][i] ^= Tm ^ Tmp ;
}
}

// Cipher is the main function that encrypts the PlainText.
void Cipher()
{
int i,j,round=0;

//Copy the input PlainText to state array.
for(i=0;i<4;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<4;j++)
{
state[j][i] = in[i*4 + j];
}
}

// Add the First round key to the state before starting the rounds.

// There will be Nr rounds.
// The first Nr-1 rounds are identical.
// These Nr-1 rounds are executed in the loop below.
for(round=1;round<Nr;round++)
{
SubBytes();
ShiftRows();
MixColumns();
}

// The last round is given below.
// The MixColumns function is not here in the last round.
SubBytes();
ShiftRows();

// The encryption process is over.
// Copy the state array to output array.
for(i=0;i<4;i++)
{
for(j=0;j<4;j++)
{
out[i*4+j]=state[j][i];
}
}
}

//___________________________________________#	Main code start here	#______________________________________

void main()
{
int i;

// Recieve the length of key here.
/*while(Nr!=128 && Nr!=192 && Nr!=256)
{
printf("Enter the length of Key(128, 192 or 256 only): ");
scanf("%d",&Nr);
}*/

// Calculate Nk and Nr from the recieved value.
Nr=128;
Nk = Nr / 32;
Nr = Nk + 6;

// here is the plain text being copied but my problem: cant input my own array instead of predefined one..

// Copy the Key and PlainText
for(i=0;i<Nk*4;i++)
{
Key[i]=temp[i];
in[i]=temp2[i];
}

// The KeyExpansion routine must be called before encryption.
KeyExpansion();

// The next function call encrypts the PlainText with the Key using AES algorithm.
Cipher();

// Output the encrypted text.
printf("\nText after encryption:\n");
for(i=0;i<Nb*4;i++)
{
printf("%02x ",out[i]);
}
printf("\n\n");
getch();
}``````

## All 3 Replies

AES is popular on this forum right now... As for your issue, you realize that the difference between hexadecimal and decimal is superficial, right? The underlying value is the same, so your problem is imaginary. Can you elaborate on exactly what isn't working as expected when you "input" your own array instead of the predefined one?

i appreciate your effort to solve my problem. as i am beginner in c.
i tried to input to AES, values like

``unsigned char temp2[32]= {00  ,11  ,22  ,33  ,44  ,55  ,66  ,77  ,88  ,99  ,aa  ,bb  ,cc  ,dd  ,ee  ,ff};``

``unsigned char temp2[32]= {0x00  ,0x11  ,0x22  ,0x33  ,0x44  ,0x55  ,0x66  ,0x77  ,0x88  ,0x99  ,0xaa  ,0xbb  ,0xcc  ,0xdd  ,0xee  ,0xff};``

and i got different results.
what i found is that the input values are different so i got different result.
Since the AES takes input of hexadecimal values so can you tell me if i have an integer array like

``int a[512];``

and i need to input first 32 values in hexadecimal then next 32 in hexadecimal and so on to AES. So, how can be that done?

thanks & regards,

i tried to input to AES, values like

``unsigned char temp2[32]= {00  ,11  ,22  ,33  ,44  ,55  ,66  ,77  ,88  ,99  ,aa  ,bb  ,cc  ,dd  ,ee  ,ff};``

``unsigned char temp2[32]= {0x00  ,0x11  ,0x22  ,0x33  ,0x44  ,0x55  ,0x66  ,0x77  ,0x88  ,0x99  ,0xaa  ,0xbb  ,0xcc  ,0xdd  ,0xee  ,0xff};``

and i got different results.

Yes, that's understandable. If you want to use hexadecimal literals in your code, they must have an 0x prefix. That's how the compiler can tell the difference and set the actual value accordingly. The equivalent decimal array would be:

``unsigned char temp2[32]= {0, 17, 34, 51, 68, 85, 102, 119, 136, 153, 170, 187, 204, 221, 238, 255};``

If you're inputting values, you don't need to worry about hexadecimal unless they're coming from a text source already in hexadecimal format. However, since AES is a generic encryption algorithm, it's assumed that you're working with straight bytes as the plaintext array, in which case you're solid.

So let's say you're reading a file and encrypting it in 32-byte blocks:

``````unsigned char plaintext[32];
int n = 0;
int ch;

while ((ch = getc(in)) != EOF) {
if (n == 32) {
write_ciphertext(plaintext);
n = 0; /* Reset for the next block */
}

plaintext[n++] = ch;
}

if (n > 0) {
/* Pad and encrypt the last block */
while (n < 32)
plaintext[n++] = 0;

write_ciphertext(plaintext);
}``````
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