Hello, a recent search on google for my link, preprod.prolectronic.ch, showed that google already referenced my site, while I have not added the google analytics and googe webmaster tools codes yet to this site.
How can I temporarily prevent google from getting access to this link until I put the website live?

Use a robots.txt file and disallow all. You can also add the robots meta tag to your html head to prevent archiving.

Using robots.txt works and google will immediately (well... pretty quick) remove the pages from the search results. Same thing happened to me and I used this approach.