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I would like to know, why extending a built-in class in php is important. I mean let's take the PDO class for example. One can either work with using new PDO(); or class Foo extends PDO. to do the same task. I guess, maybe the only thing that makes sense here is, that if I extend the class, there may be less overhead during the scripts run time, because I am working from something within the class, and I may be able to work with public, protects methods and properties, and also add more of those, but that is as far as my understanding of the purpose comes.

Also, par of the reason why I asked, is I tried to extend the PDO class, but I can't seem to find anything to extend. There are no public or protected properties, so I can't do anything.

If someone knows the answer to this question, I would really like a simple example by extending the PDO class, and doing something that otherwise, you can't do without extending it.

thanks

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Last Post by diafol
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  • 1
    diafol 3,669   3 Years Ago

    I can't really improve on Pritaeas' post, other than to add that PDO 'wrapper' classes can be very convenient as you can the 'DB' object to other classes via **dependency injection** which means that the rest of your classes can then access your custom/extended DB methods. What you don't want … Read More

  • 1

    https://wiki.php.net/internals/windows/stepbystepbuild The source for those functions is not in PHP as it is with a framework like Symfony, it's C++. Read More

  • 1

    > does this mean, everyone who wants to extend the PDO() class must learn C++ and must know, how C++ implements those features for PDO() No, not necessarily. > What could you possibly do, even in the slightest sense, if you wanted to extend the PDO() class, but target the … Read More

  • 1
    diafol 3,669   3 Years Ago

    Your `foo->prepare()` example will override the 'parent' or PDO prepare() method. I really don't think that you need to do that, why not call it `foo->prep()` ? That way you have the native `prepare()` method if you need it as well as your custom `prep()`. I always find that overriding … Read More

  • 1
    diafol 3,669   3 Years Ago

    >All one needs to know is how to use it, not how it works. Agreed. Don't go messing with the C++ code and changing the native functions in php. Your code won't be portable. You can override the native functions in child classes if you really must, so there's no … Read More

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I can't seem to find anything to extend.

If you extend PDO, it means you add functionality YOU need. This can be anything. For example, you can create a new method that accepts an object as a parameter, and then builds the query based on the content of that object. Internally, you use the PDO methods to execute the query and return a result.

I have posted an example about an ORM class, but that one encapsulates PDO, instead of extending it.

This is one example, taken from the PHP manual. It adds configuration properties:

class PDOConfig extends PDO { 
     private $engine; 
     private $host; 
     private $database; 
     private $user; 
     private $pass; 

     public function __construct(){ 
         $this->engine = 'mysql'; 
         $this->host = 'localhost'; 
         $this->database = ''; 
         $this->user = 'root'; 
         $this->pass = ''; 
         $dns = $this->engine . ':dbname=' . $this->database . ';host=' . $this->host; 
         parent::__construct($dns, $this->user, $this->pass); 
     } 
 } 

Edited by pritaeas

1

I can't really improve on Pritaeas' post, other than to add that PDO 'wrapper' classes can be very convenient as you can the 'DB' object to other classes via dependency injection which means that the rest of your classes can then access your custom/extended DB methods. What you don't want to do is create a new PDO object every time a class needs to read from or modify the DB.

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Thank you pritaeas & diafol for the inputs, and exellent example @pritaeas.

Now, I somehow understood that, extending properties/methods was the main reason behind the idea to begin-with, however when I want to extend something specific, be it a method or whatever, I can't see how each method is created, or composed of, and that is the first problem. Because, as far as I can see, there are no methods showing thier scripts inside for me to make a sense of:

In other words, take a look at this: http://www.php.net/manual/en/pdo.prepare.php

It just shows you, how one can use the prepare() method, and run statements with it, but it never shows, what/how the prepare method is created, what is inside the prepare method, or what is inside the PDO() class for that matter. I want to know, what is the in PDO() class, and its, properties & methods, how it looks, but the manual never shows that.

I guess I am looking for something like this:

class PDO{
   public $property1..
   protected $property2..
   private $property3..

   public function __construct(){
      // This I know already, but still want to know the default settings
   }

   public function query(){
    //what is found here, including the params
   }

   public function prepare(){
    //same here, I want to know everything about this method
   }


   public function execute(){
    // same goes here...
   }

}

So, I guess, I am saying, I want to know everything about a class, as in the way we can see, what is inside a class, as in, we can do for the symfony controller class. (Just as an example)

Why? Because, I need to know everything, what & how to extend. You have given me the example with the __constructor(); which is kind of, obvious, because when the PDO() object is instantiated, it requires five or six arguments, and from that, I can deduct and improvise/inject the settings as I see it fit. But, for other queries, I need to know what they are composed of to truly be able to extend them or understand them

Sorry, if my explanation or understanding of this concept sucks.

Edited by Clanstrom

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Thanks for the link, much appreaciated. But, does this mean, everyone who wants to extend the PDO() class must learn C++ and must know, how C++ implements those features for PDO() ??

So, basically to keep it short & final!

What could you possibly do, even in the slightest sense, if you wanted to extend the PDO() class, but target the prepare() method?

I assume, this much is what should be done, to get just started!

class foo extends PDO{ 
  public function prepare(){
    // pls show me one thing to do here, something even remotely as simple as 
    // a 'Hello World' example. 
  }
}   

If I can find a simple example, that would give me so much insight, as to how to move a step closer to understanding all of this.

Edited by Clanstrom

1

does this mean, everyone who wants to extend the PDO() class must learn C++ and must know, how C++ implements those features for PDO()

No, not necessarily.

What could you possibly do, even in the slightest sense, if you wanted to extend the PDO() class, but target the prepare() method?

I could add some sort of logging, but thinking of a very specific example off the top of my head is not that easy. A quick search for an example gave this, and what do you know, it adds logging...

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Weird, I searched for example, but could not find that.
Thanks. You've been so helpful.

1

Your foo->prepare() example will override the 'parent' or PDO prepare() method. I really don't think that you need to do that, why not call it foo->prep() ? That way you have the native prepare() method if you need it as well as your custom prep(). I always find that overriding native methods leads to confusion later on down the line when I try to remember parameter order or just which darned params am I supposed to be passing! Yeah, OK, code hinting and documentation aside, it's still a pain :(

1

It just shows you, how one can use the prepare() method, and run statements with it, but it never shows, what/how the prepare method is created, what is inside the prepare method, or what is inside the PDO() class for that matter. I want to know, what is the in PDO() class, and its, properties & methods, how it looks, but the manual never shows that.

And that is exactly the point of creating a class in the first place. All of the logic and details of "how" are hidden within the interface. All one needs to know is how to use it, not how it works.

Say you have a method "abc". The documentations says that it takes a string input and returns it in all capital letters. Thats all you need to know in order to use it. You don't need to know how it goes about capitalizing each letter.

Edited by hag++

1

All one needs to know is how to use it, not how it works.

Agreed. Don't go messing with the C++ code and changing the native functions in php. Your code won't be portable. You can override the native functions in child classes if you really must, so there's no need to fiddle ;)

0

I think I have made a lapse of clarity here. Imagine you are about to create a small PDO wrapper class, or a tiny ORM, then instead of doing something like this:

class TinyORM {
        public function __construct($dsn, $myQuery, $executable){
           $this->dsn = $dsn; 
           $this->myQuery = $myQuery;
           $this->executable = $executable; 
        }

        public function doSomeQuery(){
             $stmt = $this->dsn->prepare($this->myQuery);
             $stmt->execute(array($executable)); 

             if($stmt->rowCount()){
               return $stmt->fetchAll(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);
             }else{
               return 'Query Failed'
             }
        }

    }

Then, instantiate as simple as:

$dsn = new PDO(...); 
$name = 'John';
$myOrm = new TinyORM($dsn, '
            SELECT age FROM users WHERE name =?', $name);
var_dump($myOrm)

Now, as you can see in the code above, (just for example purpose)

I have encapsulated the prepare method inside my class and method, which is basically wrapping the entire method within another method, so this does not sound efficient or professional way to exented and work with the built-in methods because, instead of directly extending the class, and manupilating the methods at one instance, I am resorting to creating a redundant method/class which will only add an additional runtime overhead.

So, my hope was to understand what is inside the prepare() method, so I could do something like

class TinyOrm extends PDO {
   public function __construct($dsn){
   $this->dsn = $dsn; 
}

   public function prepare($myQuery, $executable){
    // I am asking, what is here, so to be able to preform the query at this level
   }

}

Now, the second approach looks more like a real form of polymorphism, and If there is a way to know, how the prepare() method is constructed and how to instanciate the object, that would help me manipulate the data inside it, to my own needs.

I hope, this was a good enough explanation.

Edited by Clanstrom

1

prepare prepares the query for binding and/or execution. I'm not sure what you want to do in that method that is not already there.

You can manipulate in the method all you want, but at some point you'll have to call the parent::prepare. Basically you are using a third-party DLL or assembly, and for the code to work, you have to call it.

0

I really tried to put an effort in making the example crystal-clear about why I need to use prepare() to inject the queries direcly, as opossed to making a container method, that will only wrap-up the prepare() method.

I think the latter is more efficient, that

1

You're not going to see a huge difference efficiency wise, this all comes down to what design makes more sense for your project.

0

You're not going to see a huge difference efficiency wise, this all comes down to what design makes more sense for your project.

@hag++ Ok, let me just agree with you on that fact, but lets say that I really wanted extend it, for the sake of argument, then what is inside the method I can manupilate and re-use in a way I see fit?

It is just vague, that PHP has given us a class, and the only thing I can understand from it, is how many parameters it takes, the parameter order, and then the result. I am sure, there is more to that method than that.

Edited by Clanstrom

1

What you can manipulate is the query and the parameters, using all of what the PDO class offers. It's just that the parent implementation is inside a DLL, so you can't choose to ignore the original function and do it yourself in PHP. The only way to do that, is to change the source code (which is C++) and build a new extension.

1

It is just vague, that PHP has given us a class, and the only thing I can understand from it, is how many parameters it takes, the parameter order, and then the result. I am sure, there is more to that method than that.

IMO, there shouldn't be. You use native classes and methods, you should only have access to the interface.

As Pritaeas states, if you want to get into the nuts and bolts of the native class, investigate the C++ upon which PHP is built.

When you create a class for others to use, you don't really want them to start poking around inside the class itself, just use the interface. Thing is, you can see the PHP class code of course, so if you wanted to fiddle with it, you could.

0

Ok, Finally! I've come to undestand this. So, anything more in-depth than an a regular PHP class is a written in C++ code? Meaning, if I wanted to know how prepare() is made, then in PHP it won't be possible.

Well, I think I got it, because I checked PHP storm, asking it to give me details of the PDO() class, and this is what I got (sorry for the block of code)

<?php

// Start of PDO v.1.0.4dev

/**
 * Represents an error raised by PDO. You should not throw a
 * <b>PDOException</b> from your own code.
 * See Exceptions for more
 * information about Exceptions in PHP.
 * @link http://php.net/manual/en/class.pdoexception.php
 */
class PDOException extends RuntimeException  {
    public $errorInfo;


}

/**
 * Represents a connection between PHP and a database server.
 * @link http://php.net/manual/en/class.pdo.php
 */
class PDO  {

    /**
     * Represents a boolean data type.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_BOOL = 5;

    /**
     * Represents the SQL NULL data type.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_NULL = 0;

    /**
     * Represents the SQL INTEGER data type.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_INT = 1;

    /**
     * Represents the SQL CHAR, VARCHAR, or other string data type.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_STR = 2;

    /**
     * Represents the SQL large object data type.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_LOB = 3;

    /**
     * Represents a recordset type. Not currently supported by any drivers.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_STMT = 4;

    /**
     * Specifies that the parameter is an INOUT parameter for a stored
     * procedure. You must bitwise-OR this value with an explicit
     * PDO::PARAM_* data type.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_INPUT_OUTPUT = 2147483648;

    /**
     * Allocation event
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_EVT_ALLOC = 0;

    /**
     * Deallocation event
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_EVT_FREE = 1;

    /**
     * Event triggered prior to execution of a prepared statement.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_EVT_EXEC_PRE = 2;

    /**
     * Event triggered subsequent to execution of a prepared statement.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_EVT_EXEC_POST = 3;

    /**
     * Event triggered prior to fetching a result from a resultset.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_EVT_FETCH_PRE = 4;

    /**
     * Event triggered subsequent to fetching a result from a resultset.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_EVT_FETCH_POST = 5;

    /**
     * Event triggered during bound parameter registration
     * allowing the driver to normalize the parameter name.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const PARAM_EVT_NORMALIZE = 6;

    /**
     * Specifies that the fetch method shall return each row as an object with
     * variable names that correspond to the column names returned in the result
     * set. <b>PDO::FETCH_LAZY</b> creates the object variable names as they are accessed.
     * Not valid inside <b>PDOStatement::fetchAll</b>.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_LAZY = 1;

    /**
     * Specifies that the fetch method shall return each row as an array indexed
     * by column name as returned in the corresponding result set. If the result
     * set contains multiple columns with the same name,
     * <b>PDO::FETCH_ASSOC</b> returns
     * only a single value per column name.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_ASSOC = 2;

    /**
     * Specifies that the fetch method shall return each row as an array indexed
     * by column number as returned in the corresponding result set, starting at
     * column 0.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_NUM = 3;

    /**
     * Specifies that the fetch method shall return each row as an array indexed
     * by both column name and number as returned in the corresponding result set,
     * starting at column 0.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_BOTH = 4;

    /**
     * Specifies that the fetch method shall return each row as an object with
     * property names that correspond to the column names returned in the result
     * set.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_OBJ = 5;

    /**
     * Specifies that the fetch method shall return TRUE and assign the values of
     * the columns in the result set to the PHP variables to which they were
     * bound with the <b>PDOStatement::bindParam</b> or
     * <b>PDOStatement::bindColumn</b> methods.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_BOUND = 6;

    /**
     * Specifies that the fetch method shall return only a single requested
     * column from the next row in the result set.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_COLUMN = 7;

    /**
     * Specifies that the fetch method shall return a new instance of the
     * requested class, mapping the columns to named properties in the class.
     * The magic
     * <b>__set</b>
     * method is called if the property doesn't exist in the requested class
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_CLASS = 8;

    /**
     * Specifies that the fetch method shall update an existing instance of the
     * requested class, mapping the columns to named properties in the class.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_INTO = 9;

    /**
     * Allows completely customize the way data is treated on the fly (only
     * valid inside <b>PDOStatement::fetchAll</b>).
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_FUNC = 10;

    /**
     * Group return by values. Usually combined with
     * <b>PDO::FETCH_COLUMN</b> or
     * <b>PDO::FETCH_KEY_PAIR</b>.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_GROUP = 65536;

    /**
     * Fetch only the unique values.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_UNIQUE = 196608;

    /**
     * Fetch a two-column result into an array where the first column is a key and the second column
     * is the value. Available since PHP 5.2.3.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_KEY_PAIR = 12;

    /**
     * Determine the class name from the value of first column.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_CLASSTYPE = 262144;

    /**
     * As <b>PDO::FETCH_INTO</b> but object is provided as a serialized string.
     * Available since PHP 5.1.0.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_SERIALIZE = 524288;

    /**
     * Available since PHP 5.2.0
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_PROPS_LATE = 1048576;

    /**
     * Specifies that the fetch method shall return each row as an array indexed
     * by column name as returned in the corresponding result set. If the result
     * set contains multiple columns with the same name,
     * <b>PDO::FETCH_NAMED</b> returns
     * an array of values per column name.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_NAMED = 11;

    /**
     * If this value is <b>FALSE</b>, PDO attempts to disable autocommit so that the
     * connection begins a transaction.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_AUTOCOMMIT = 0;

    /**
     * Setting the prefetch size allows you to balance speed against memory
     * usage for your application. Not all database/driver combinations support
     * setting of the prefetch size. A larger prefetch size results in
     * increased performance at the cost of higher memory usage.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_PREFETCH = 1;

    /**
     * Sets the timeout value in seconds for communications with the database.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_TIMEOUT = 2;

    /**
     * See the Errors and error
     * handling section for more information about this attribute.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_ERRMODE = 3;

    /**
     * This is a read only attribute; it will return information about the
     * version of the database server to which PDO is connected.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_SERVER_VERSION = 4;

    /**
     * This is a read only attribute; it will return information about the
     * version of the client libraries that the PDO driver is using.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_CLIENT_VERSION = 5;

    /**
     * This is a read only attribute; it will return some meta information about the
     * database server to which PDO is connected.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_SERVER_INFO = 6;
    const ATTR_CONNECTION_STATUS = 7;

    /**
     * Force column names to a specific case specified by the PDO::CASE_*
     * constants.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_CASE = 8;

    /**
     * Get or set the name to use for a cursor. Most useful when using
     * scrollable cursors and positioned updates.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_CURSOR_NAME = 9;

    /**
     * Selects the cursor type. PDO currently supports either
     * <b>PDO::CURSOR_FWDONLY</b> and
     * <b>PDO::CURSOR_SCROLL</b>. Stick with
     * <b>PDO::CURSOR_FWDONLY</b> unless you know that you need a
     * scrollable cursor.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_CURSOR = 10;

    /**
     * Convert empty strings to SQL NULL values on data fetches.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_ORACLE_NULLS = 11;

    /**
     * Request a persistent connection, rather than creating a new connection.
     * See Connections and Connection
     * management for more information on this attribute.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_PERSISTENT = 12;
    const ATTR_STATEMENT_CLASS = 13;

    /**
     * Prepend the containing table name to each column name returned in the
     * result set. The table name and column name are separated by a decimal (.)
     * character. Support of this attribute is at the driver level; it may not
     * be supported by your driver.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_FETCH_TABLE_NAMES = 14;

    /**
     * Prepend the containing catalog name to each column name returned in the
     * result set. The catalog name and column name are separated by a decimal
     * (.) character. Support of this attribute is at the driver level; it may
     * not be supported by your driver.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_FETCH_CATALOG_NAMES = 15;

    /**
     * Returns the name of the driver.
     * <p>
     * using <b>PDO::ATTR_DRIVER_NAME</b>
     * <code>
     * if ($db->getAttribute(PDO::ATTR_DRIVER_NAME) == 'mysql') {
     * echo "Running on mysql; doing something mysql specific here\n";
     * }
     * </code>
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_DRIVER_NAME = 16;
    const ATTR_STRINGIFY_FETCHES = 17;
    const ATTR_MAX_COLUMN_LEN = 18;

    /**
     * Available since PHP 5.1.3.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES = 20;

    /**
     * Available since PHP 5.2.0
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ATTR_DEFAULT_FETCH_MODE = 19;

    /**
     * Do not raise an error or exception if an error occurs. The developer is
     * expected to explicitly check for errors. This is the default mode.
     * See Errors and error handling
     * for more information about this attribute.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ERRMODE_SILENT = 0;

    /**
     * Issue a PHP <b>E_WARNING</b> message if an error occurs.
     * See Errors and error handling
     * for more information about this attribute.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ERRMODE_WARNING = 1;

    /**
     * Throw a <b>PDOException</b> if an error occurs.
     * See Errors and error handling
     * for more information about this attribute.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ERRMODE_EXCEPTION = 2;

    /**
     * Leave column names as returned by the database driver.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const CASE_NATURAL = 0;

    /**
     * Force column names to lower case.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const CASE_LOWER = 2;

    /**
     * Force column names to upper case.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const CASE_UPPER = 1;
    const NULL_NATURAL = 0;
    const NULL_EMPTY_STRING = 1;
    const NULL_TO_STRING = 2;

    /**
     * Corresponds to SQLSTATE '00000', meaning that the SQL statement was
     * successfully issued with no errors or warnings. This constant is for
     * your convenience when checking <b>PDO::errorCode</b> or
     * <b>PDOStatement::errorCode</b> to determine if an error
     * occurred. You will usually know if this is the case by examining the
     * return code from the method that raised the error condition anyway.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const ERR_NONE = 00000;

    /**
     * Fetch the next row in the result set. Valid only for scrollable cursors.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_ORI_NEXT = 0;

    /**
     * Fetch the previous row in the result set. Valid only for scrollable
     * cursors.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_ORI_PRIOR = 1;

    /**
     * Fetch the first row in the result set. Valid only for scrollable cursors.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_ORI_FIRST = 2;

    /**
     * Fetch the last row in the result set. Valid only for scrollable cursors.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_ORI_LAST = 3;

    /**
     * Fetch the requested row by row number from the result set. Valid only
     * for scrollable cursors.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_ORI_ABS = 4;

    /**
     * Fetch the requested row by relative position from the current position
     * of the cursor in the result set. Valid only for scrollable cursors.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const FETCH_ORI_REL = 5;

    /**
     * Create a <b>PDOStatement</b> object with a forward-only cursor. This is the
     * default cursor choice, as it is the fastest and most common data access
     * pattern in PHP.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const CURSOR_FWDONLY = 0;

    /**
     * Create a <b>PDOStatement</b> object with a scrollable cursor. Pass the
     * PDO::FETCH_ORI_* constants to control the rows fetched from the result set.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.constants.php
     */
    const CURSOR_SCROLL = 1;

    /**
     * If this attribute is set to <b>TRUE</b> on a
     * <b>PDOStatement</b>, the MySQL driver will use the
     * buffered versions of the MySQL API. If you're writing portable code, you
     * should use <b>PDOStatement::fetchAll</b> instead.
     * <p>
     * Forcing queries to be buffered in mysql
     * <code>
     * if ($db->getAttribute(PDO::ATTR_DRIVER_NAME) == 'mysql') {
     * $stmt = $db->prepare('select * from foo',
     * array(PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_USE_BUFFERED_QUERY => true));
     * } else {
     * die("my application only works with mysql; I should use \$stmt->fetchAll() instead");
     * }
     * </code>
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_USE_BUFFERED_QUERY = 1000;

    /**
     * <p>
     * Enable LOAD LOCAL INFILE.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * Note, this constant can only be used in the <i>driver_options</i>
     * array when constructing a new database handle.
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_LOCAL_INFILE = 1001;

    /**
     * <p>
     * Command to execute when connecting to the MySQL server. Will
     * automatically be re-executed when reconnecting.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * Note, this constant can only be used in the <i>driver_options</i>
     * array when constructing a new database handle.
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_INIT_COMMAND = 1002;

    /**
     * <p>
     * Maximum buffer size. Defaults to 1 MiB. This constant is not supported when
     * compiled against mysqlnd.
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_MAX_BUFFER_SIZE = 1005;

    /**
     * <p>
     * Read options from the named option file instead of from
     * my.cnf. This option is not available if
     * mysqlnd is used, because mysqlnd does not read the mysql
     * configuration files.
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_READ_DEFAULT_FILE = 1003;

    /**
     * <p>
     * Read options from the named group from my.cnf or the
     * file specified with <b>MYSQL_READ_DEFAULT_FILE</b>. This option
     * is not available if mysqlnd is used, because mysqlnd does not read the mysql
     * configuration files.
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_READ_DEFAULT_GROUP = 1004;

    /**
     * <p>
     * Enable network communication compression. This is not supported when
     * compiled against mysqlnd.
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_COMPRESS = 1006;

    /**
     * <p>
     * Perform direct queries, don't use prepared statements.
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_DIRECT_QUERY = 1007;

    /**
     * <p>
     * Return the number of found (matched) rows, not the
     * number of changed rows.
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_FOUND_ROWS = 1008;

    /**
     * <p>
     * Permit spaces after function names. Makes all functions
     * names reserved words.
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_IGNORE_SPACE = 1009;
    const MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_KEY = 1010;

    /**
     * <p>
     * The file path to the SSL certificate.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * This exists as of PHP 5.3.7.
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_CERT = 1011;

    /**
     * <p>
     * The file path to the SSL certificate authority.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * This exists as of PHP 5.3.7.
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_CA = 1012;

    /**
     * <p>
     * The file path to the directory that contains the trusted SSL
     * CA certificates, which are stored in PEM format.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * This exists as of PHP 5.3.7.
     * </p>
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo-mysql.constants.php
     */
    const MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_CAPATH = 1013;
    const MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_CIPHER = 1014;
    const PGSQL_ATTR_DISABLE_NATIVE_PREPARED_STATEMENT = 1000;
    const PGSQL_TRANSACTION_IDLE = 0;
    const PGSQL_TRANSACTION_ACTIVE = 1;
    const PGSQL_TRANSACTION_INTRANS = 2;
    const PGSQL_TRANSACTION_INERROR = 3;
    const PGSQL_TRANSACTION_UNKNOWN = 4;


    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Creates a PDO instance representing a connection to a database
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.construct.php
     * @param $dsn
     * @param $username [optional]
     * @param $passwd [optional]
     * @param $options [optional]
     */
    public function __construct ($dsn, $username, $passwd, $options) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Prepares a statement for execution and returns a statement object
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.prepare.php
     * @param string $statement <p>
     * This must be a valid SQL statement for the target database server.
     * </p>
     * @param array $driver_options [optional] <p>
     * This array holds one or more key=&gt;value pairs to set
     * attribute values for the PDOStatement object that this method
     * returns. You would most commonly use this to set the
     * PDO::ATTR_CURSOR value to
     * PDO::CURSOR_SCROLL to request a scrollable cursor.
     * Some drivers have driver specific options that may be set at
     * prepare-time.
     * </p>
     * @return PDOStatement If the database server successfully prepares the statement,
     * <b>PDO::prepare</b> returns a
     * <b>PDOStatement</b> object.
     * If the database server cannot successfully prepare the statement,
     * <b>PDO::prepare</b> returns <b>FALSE</b> or emits
     * <b>PDOException</b> (depending on error handling).
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * Emulated prepared statements does not communicate with the database server
     * so <b>PDO::prepare</b> does not check the statement.
     */
    public function prepare ($statement, array $driver_options = null) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Initiates a transaction
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.begintransaction.php
     * @return bool <b>TRUE</b> on success or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function beginTransaction () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Commits a transaction
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.commit.php
     * @return bool <b>TRUE</b> on success or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function commit () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Rolls back a transaction
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.rollback.php
     * @return bool <b>TRUE</b> on success or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function rollBack () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.3.3, Bundled pdo_pgsql)<br/>
     * Checks if inside a transaction
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.intransaction.php
     * @return bool <b>TRUE</b> if a transaction is currently active, and <b>FALSE</b> if not.
     */
    public function inTransaction () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Set an attribute
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.setattribute.php
     * @param int $attribute
     * @param mixed $value
     * @return bool <b>TRUE</b> on success or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function setAttribute ($attribute, $value) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Execute an SQL statement and return the number of affected rows
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.exec.php
     * @param string $statement <p>
     * The SQL statement to prepare and execute.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * Data inside the query should be properly escaped.
     * </p>
     * @return int <b>PDO::exec</b> returns the number of rows that were modified
     * or deleted by the SQL statement you issued. If no rows were affected,
     * <b>PDO::exec</b> returns 0.
     * </p>
     * This function may
     * return Boolean <b>FALSE</b>, but may also return a non-Boolean value which
     * evaluates to <b>FALSE</b>. Please read the section on Booleans for more
     * information. Use the ===
     * operator for testing the return value of this
     * function.
     * <p>
     * The following example incorrectly relies on the return value of
     * <b>PDO::exec</b>, wherein a statement that affected 0 rows
     * results in a call to <b>die</b>:
     * <code>
     * $db->exec() or die(print_r($db->errorInfo(), true));
     * </code>
     */
    public function exec ($statement) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.2.0)<br/>
     * Executes an SQL statement, returning a result set as a PDOStatement object
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.query.php
     * @param string $statement <p>
     * The SQL statement to prepare and execute.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * Data inside the query should be properly escaped.
     * </p>
     * @return PDOStatement <b>PDO::query</b> returns a PDOStatement object, or <b>FALSE</b>
     * on failure.
     */
    public function query ($statement) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Returns the ID of the last inserted row or sequence value
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.lastinsertid.php
     * @param string $name [optional] <p>
     * Name of the sequence object from which the ID should be returned.
     * </p>
     * @return string If a sequence name was not specified for the <i>name</i>
     * parameter, <b>PDO::lastInsertId</b> returns a
     * string representing the row ID of the last row that was inserted into
     * the database.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * If a sequence name was specified for the <i>name</i>
     * parameter, <b>PDO::lastInsertId</b> returns a
     * string representing the last value retrieved from the specified sequence
     * object.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * If the PDO driver does not support this capability,
     * <b>PDO::lastInsertId</b> triggers an
     * IM001 SQLSTATE.
     */
    public function lastInsertId ($name = null) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Fetch the SQLSTATE associated with the last operation on the database handle
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.errorcode.php
     * @return mixed an SQLSTATE, a five characters alphanumeric identifier defined in
     * the ANSI SQL-92 standard. Briefly, an SQLSTATE consists of a
     * two characters class value followed by a three characters subclass value. A
     * class value of 01 indicates a warning and is accompanied by a return code
     * of SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO. Class values other than '01', except for the
     * class 'IM', indicate an error. The class 'IM' is specific to warnings
     * and errors that derive from the implementation of PDO (or perhaps ODBC,
     * if you're using the ODBC driver) itself. The subclass value '000' in any
     * class indicates that there is no subclass for that SQLSTATE.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * <b>PDO::errorCode</b> only retrieves error codes for operations
     * performed directly on the database handle. If you create a PDOStatement
     * object through <b>PDO::prepare</b> or
     * <b>PDO::query</b> and invoke an error on the statement
     * handle, <b>PDO::errorCode</b> will not reflect that error.
     * You must call <b>PDOStatement::errorCode</b> to return the error
     * code for an operation performed on a particular statement handle.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * Returns <b>NULL</b> if no operation has been run on the database handle.
     */
    public function errorCode () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Fetch extended error information associated with the last operation on the database handle
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.errorinfo.php
     * @return array <b>PDO::errorInfo</b> returns an array of error information
     * about the last operation performed by this database handle. The array
     * consists of the following fields:
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>Element</td>
     * <td>Information</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>0</td>
     * <td>SQLSTATE error code (a five characters alphanumeric identifier defined
     * in the ANSI SQL standard).</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>1</td>
     * <td>Driver-specific error code.</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>2</td>
     * <td>Driver-specific error message.</td>
     * </tr>
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * If the SQLSTATE error code is not set or there is no driver-specific
     * error, the elements following element 0 will be set to <b>NULL</b>.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * <b>PDO::errorInfo</b> only retrieves error information for
     * operations performed directly on the database handle. If you create a
     * PDOStatement object through <b>PDO::prepare</b> or
     * <b>PDO::query</b> and invoke an error on the statement
     * handle, <b>PDO::errorInfo</b> will not reflect the error
     * from the statement handle. You must call
     * <b>PDOStatement::errorInfo</b> to return the error
     * information for an operation performed on a particular statement handle.
     */
    public function errorInfo () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.2.0)<br/>
     * Retrieve a database connection attribute
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.getattribute.php
     * @param int $attribute <p>
     * One of the PDO::ATTR_* constants. The constants that
     * apply to database connections are as follows:
     * PDO::ATTR_AUTOCOMMIT
     * PDO::ATTR_CASE
     * PDO::ATTR_CLIENT_VERSION
     * PDO::ATTR_CONNECTION_STATUS
     * PDO::ATTR_DRIVER_NAME
     * PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE
     * PDO::ATTR_ORACLE_NULLS
     * PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT
     * PDO::ATTR_PREFETCH
     * PDO::ATTR_SERVER_INFO
     * PDO::ATTR_SERVER_VERSION
     * PDO::ATTR_TIMEOUT
     * </p>
     * @return mixed A successful call returns the value of the requested PDO attribute.
     * An unsuccessful call returns null.
     */
    public function getAttribute ($attribute) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.2.1)<br/>
     * Quotes a string for use in a query.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.quote.php
     * @param string $string <p>
     * The string to be quoted.
     * </p>
     * @param int $parameter_type [optional] <p>
     * Provides a data type hint for drivers that have alternate quoting styles.
     * </p>
     * @return string a quoted string that is theoretically safe to pass into an
     * SQL statement. Returns <b>FALSE</b> if the driver does not support quoting in
     * this way.
     */
    public function quote ($string, $parameter_type = PDO::PARAM_STR) {}

    final public function __wakeup () {}

    final public function __sleep () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.3, PECL pdo &gt;= 1.0.3)<br/>
     * Return an array of available PDO drivers
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.getavailabledrivers.php
     * @return array <b>PDO::getAvailableDrivers</b> returns an array of PDO driver names. If
     * no drivers are available, it returns an empty array.
     */
    public static function getAvailableDrivers () {}

}

/**
 * Represents a prepared statement and, after the statement is executed, an
 * associated result set.
 * @link http://php.net/manual/en/class.pdostatement.php
 */
class PDOStatement implements Traversable {
    /**
     * @var string
     */
    public $queryString;


    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Executes a prepared statement
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.execute.php
     * @param array $input_parameters [optional] <p>
     * An array of values with as many elements as there are bound
     * parameters in the SQL statement being executed.
     * All values are treated as <b>PDO::PARAM_STR</b>.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * You cannot bind multiple values to a single parameter; for example,
     * you cannot bind two values to a single named parameter in an IN()
     * clause.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * You cannot bind more values than specified; if more keys exist in
     * <i>input_parameters</i> than in the SQL specified
     * in the <b>PDO::prepare</b>, then the statement will
     * fail and an error is emitted.
     * </p>
     * @return bool <b>TRUE</b> on success or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function execute (array $input_parameters = null) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Fetches the next row from a result set
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.fetch.php
     * @param int $fetch_style [optional] <p>
     * Controls how the next row will be returned to the caller. This value
     * must be one of the PDO::FETCH_* constants,
     * defaulting to value of PDO::ATTR_DEFAULT_FETCH_MODE
     * (which defaults to PDO::FETCH_BOTH).
     * <p>
     * PDO::FETCH_ASSOC: returns an array indexed by column
     * name as returned in your result set
     * </p>
     * @param int $cursor_orientation [optional] <p>
     * For a PDOStatement object representing a scrollable cursor, this
     * value determines which row will be returned to the caller. This value
     * must be one of the PDO::FETCH_ORI_* constants,
     * defaulting to PDO::FETCH_ORI_NEXT. To request a
     * scrollable cursor for your PDOStatement object, you must set the
     * PDO::ATTR_CURSOR attribute to
     * PDO::CURSOR_SCROLL when you prepare the SQL
     * statement with <b>PDO::prepare</b>.
     * </p>
     * @param int $cursor_offset [optional]
     * @return mixed The return value of this function on success depends on the fetch type. In
     * all cases, <b>FALSE</b> is returned on failure.
     */
    public function fetch ($fetch_style = null, $cursor_orientation = PDO::FETCH_ORI_NEXT, $cursor_offset = 0) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Binds a parameter to the specified variable name
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.bindparam.php
     * @param mixed $parameter <p>
     * Parameter identifier. For a prepared statement using named
     * placeholders, this will be a parameter name of the form
     * :name. For a prepared statement using
     * question mark placeholders, this will be the 1-indexed position of
     * the parameter.
     * </p>
     * @param mixed $variable <p>
     * Name of the PHP variable to bind to the SQL statement parameter.
     * </p>
     * @param int $data_type [optional] <p>
     * Explicit data type for the parameter using the PDO::PARAM_*
     * constants.
     * To return an INOUT parameter from a stored procedure,
     * use the bitwise OR operator to set the PDO::PARAM_INPUT_OUTPUT bits
     * for the <i>data_type</i> parameter.
     * </p>
     * @param int $length [optional] <p>
     * Length of the data type. To indicate that a parameter is an OUT
     * parameter from a stored procedure, you must explicitly set the
     * length.
     * </p>
     * @param mixed $driver_options [optional] <p>
     * </p>
     * @return bool <b>TRUE</b> on success or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function bindParam ($parameter, &$variable, $data_type = PDO::PARAM_STR, $length = null, $driver_options = null) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Bind a column to a PHP variable
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.bindcolumn.php
     * @param mixed $column <p>
     * Number of the column (1-indexed) or name of the column in the result set.
     * If using the column name, be aware that the name should match the
     * case of the column, as returned by the driver.
     * </p>
     * @param mixed $param <p>
     * Name of the PHP variable to which the column will be bound.
     * </p>
     * @param int $type [optional] <p>
     * Data type of the parameter, specified by the PDO::PARAM_* constants.
     * </p>
     * @param int $maxlen [optional] <p>
     * A hint for pre-allocation.
     * </p>
     * @param mixed $driverdata [optional] <p>
     * Optional parameter(s) for the driver.
     * </p>
     * @return bool <b>TRUE</b> on success or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function bindColumn ($column, &$param, $type = null, $maxlen = null, $driverdata = null) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 1.0.0)<br/>
     * Binds a value to a parameter
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.bindvalue.php
     * @param mixed $parameter <p>
     * Parameter identifier. For a prepared statement using named
     * placeholders, this will be a parameter name of the form
     * :name. For a prepared statement using
     * question mark placeholders, this will be the 1-indexed position of
     * the parameter.
     * </p>
     * @param mixed $value <p>
     * The value to bind to the parameter.
     * </p>
     * @param int $data_type [optional] <p>
     * Explicit data type for the parameter using the PDO::PARAM_*
     * constants.
     * </p>
     * @return bool <b>TRUE</b> on success or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function bindValue ($parameter, $value, $data_type = PDO::PARAM_STR) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Returns the number of rows affected by the last SQL statement
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.rowcount.php
     * @return int the number of rows.
     */
    public function rowCount () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.9.0)<br/>
     * Returns a single column from the next row of a result set
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.fetchcolumn.php
     * @param int $column_number [optional] <p>
     * 0-indexed number of the column you wish to retrieve from the row. If
     * no value is supplied, <b>PDOStatement::fetchColumn</b>
     * fetches the first column.
     * </p>
     * @return string <b>PDOStatement::fetchColumn</b> returns a single column
     * in the next row of a result set.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * There is no way to return another column from the same row if you
     * use <b>PDOStatement::fetchColumn</b> to retrieve data.
     */
    public function fetchColumn ($column_number = 0) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Returns an array containing all of the result set rows
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.fetchall.php
     * @param int $fetch_style [optional] <p>
     * Controls the contents of the returned array as documented in
     * <b>PDOStatement::fetch</b>.
     * Defaults to value of <b>PDO::ATTR_DEFAULT_FETCH_MODE</b>
     * (which defaults to <b>PDO::FETCH_BOTH</b>)
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * To return an array consisting of all values of a single column from
     * the result set, specify <b>PDO::FETCH_COLUMN</b>. You
     * can specify which column you want with the
     * <i>column-index</i> parameter.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * To fetch only the unique values of a single column from the result set,
     * bitwise-OR <b>PDO::FETCH_COLUMN</b> with
     * <b>PDO::FETCH_UNIQUE</b>.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * To return an associative array grouped by the values of a specified
     * column, bitwise-OR <b>PDO::FETCH_COLUMN</b> with
     * <b>PDO::FETCH_GROUP</b>.
     * </p>
     * @param mixed $fetch_argument [optional] <p>
     * This argument have a different meaning depending on the value of
     * the <i>fetch_style</i> parameter:
     * <p>
     * <b>PDO::FETCH_COLUMN</b>: Returns the indicated 0-indexed
     * column.
     * </p>
     * @param array $ctor_args [optional] <p>
     * Arguments of custom class constructor when the <i>fetch_style</i>
     * parameter is <b>PDO::FETCH_CLASS</b>.
     * </p>
     * @return array <b>PDOStatement::fetchAll</b> returns an array containing
     * all of the remaining rows in the result set. The array represents each
     * row as either an array of column values or an object with properties
     * corresponding to each column name.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * Using this method to fetch large result sets will result in a heavy
     * demand on system and possibly network resources. Rather than retrieving
     * all of the data and manipulating it in PHP, consider using the database
     * server to manipulate the result sets. For example, use the WHERE and
     * ORDER BY clauses in SQL to restrict results before retrieving and
     * processing them with PHP.
     */
    public function fetchAll ($fetch_style = null, $fetch_argument = null, array $ctor_args = 'array()') {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.2.4)<br/>
     * Fetches the next row and returns it as an object.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.fetchobject.php
     * @param string $class_name [optional] <p>
     * Name of the created class.
     * </p>
     * @param array $ctor_args [optional] <p>
     * Elements of this array are passed to the constructor.
     * </p>
     * @return mixed an instance of the required class with property names that
     * correspond to the column names or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function fetchObject ($class_name = "stdClass", array $ctor_args = null) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Fetch the SQLSTATE associated with the last operation on the statement handle
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.errorcode.php
     * @return string Identical to <b>PDO::errorCode</b>, except that
     * <b>PDOStatement::errorCode</b> only retrieves error codes
     * for operations performed with PDOStatement objects.
     */
    public function errorCode () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.1.0)<br/>
     * Fetch extended error information associated with the last operation on the statement handle
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.errorinfo.php
     * @return array <b>PDOStatement::errorInfo</b> returns an array of
     * error information about the last operation performed by this
     * statement handle. The array consists of the following fields:
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>Element</td>
     * <td>Information</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>0</td>
     * <td>SQLSTATE error code (a five characters alphanumeric identifier defined
     * in the ANSI SQL standard).</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>1</td>
     * <td>Driver specific error code.</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>2</td>
     * <td>Driver specific error message.</td>
     * </tr>
     */
    public function errorInfo () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.2.0)<br/>
     * Set a statement attribute
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.setattribute.php
     * @param int $attribute
     * @param mixed $value
     * @return bool <b>TRUE</b> on success or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function setAttribute ($attribute, $value) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.2.0)<br/>
     * Retrieve a statement attribute
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.getattribute.php
     * @param int $attribute
     * @return mixed the attribute value.
     */
    public function getAttribute ($attribute) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.2.0)<br/>
     * Returns the number of columns in the result set
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.columncount.php
     * @return int the number of columns in the result set represented by the
     * PDOStatement object. If there is no result set,
     * <b>PDOStatement::columnCount</b> returns 0.
     */
    public function columnCount () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.2.0)<br/>
     * Returns metadata for a column in a result set
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.getcolumnmeta.php
     * @param int $column <p>
     * The 0-indexed column in the result set.
     * </p>
     * @return array an associative array containing the following values representing
     * the metadata for a single column:
     * </p>
     * <table>
     * Column metadata
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>Name</td>
     * <td>Value</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>native_type</td>
     * <td>The PHP native type used to represent the column value.</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>driver:decl_type</td>
     * <td>The SQL type used to represent the column value in the database.
     * If the column in the result set is the result of a function, this value
     * is not returned by <b>PDOStatement::getColumnMeta</b>.
     * </td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>flags</td>
     * <td>Any flags set for this column.</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>name</td>
     * <td>The name of this column as returned by the database.</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>table</td>
     * <td>The name of this column's table as returned by the database.</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>len</td>
     * <td>The length of this column. Normally -1 for
     * types other than floating point decimals.</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>precision</td>
     * <td>The numeric precision of this column. Normally
     * 0 for types other than floating point
     * decimals.</td>
     * </tr>
     * <tr valign="top">
     * <td>pdo_type</td>
     * <td>The type of this column as represented by the
     * PDO::PARAM_* constants.</td>
     * </tr>
     * </table>
     * <p>
     * Returns <b>FALSE</b> if the requested column does not exist in the result set,
     * or if no result set exists.
     */
    public function getColumnMeta ($column) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.2.0)<br/>
     * Set the default fetch mode for this statement
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.setfetchmode.php
     * @param int $mode <p>
     * The fetch mode must be one of the PDO::FETCH_* constants.
     * </p>
     * @return bool 1 on success or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function setFetchMode ($mode) {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.2.0)<br/>
     * Advances to the next rowset in a multi-rowset statement handle
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.nextrowset.php
     * @return bool <b>TRUE</b> on success or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function nextRowset () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.9.0)<br/>
     * Closes the cursor, enabling the statement to be executed again.
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.closecursor.php
     * @return bool <b>TRUE</b> on success or <b>FALSE</b> on failure.
     */
    public function closeCursor () {}

    /**
     * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.0, PECL pdo &gt;= 0.9.0)<br/>
     * Dump an SQL prepared command
     * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdostatement.debugdumpparams.php
     * @return bool No value is returned.
     */
    public function debugDumpParams () {}

    final public function __wakeup () {}

    final public function __sleep () {}

}

final class PDORow  {
}

/**
 * (PHP 5 &gt;= 5.1.3, PECL pdo &gt;= 1.0.3)<br/>
 * Return an array of available PDO drivers
 * @link http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.getavailabledrivers.php
 * @return array <b>PDO::getAvailableDrivers</b> returns an array of PDO driver names. If
 * no drivers are available, it returns an empty array.
 */
function pdo_drivers () {}

// End of PDO v.1.0.4dev
?>

Therefore, I suppose, this is as far-based information PHP can give, about the PDO() class, wrapped in PHP. Anyone, looking for more information than this, would have to check how PDO is made using the C++ extentions?

Have I got it, right this time boys?

0

I suppose you have. As you can see from the code, there's nothing really there that you can't get from the manual about PDO methods (inputs and outputs).

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