I prefer firefox over other internet browsers including iceweasel (and lets not bring that back up or get into a debate).

I am semi-newer to linux but am a fast learner so bear with me....

I have downloaded firefox 5.0.1 from the site (for debian). Then I extracted the file in my Downloads. Then I moved the file to /opt (where others say it is susspose to be). From there I changed my directory to be opt and tried apt-get install firefox but I get this error:

root@Mike-Debian:/opt# apt-get install firefox
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
Package firefox is not available, but is referred to by another package.
This may mean that the package is missing, has been obsoleted, or
is only available from another source

E: Package 'firefox' has no installation candidate
And I have tried many things but at this point I am just confused and not sure what to do.

What am I doing wrong, Thanks! (sorry if this is a noob question too).

well, when you run apt-get install, it search program, and if it is, compiles it, produces libraries and make executable file.
in this case , you 've downloaded ready-made firefox. it is compiled already. you have executable file 'firefox'.

you can run it : 1.move to the folder ..../firefox 2. and type ./firefox
that's all

nevertheless, it may be some uncomfy to run firefox via terminal, you may create shortcut in menu>system>preferences>keyboard shortcuts, or you may create icon on panel using add to panel, or add to gnomemenu

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