Normally you would export the data from your spreadsheet first. Most people say use a csv file, but as your data can easily include a comma in a text field, this is not the best format. Use tab delimited text instead, available as a file type option in Excel.
Then you have to either use some database management program to connect to your server and use the load data in file command to import the data. At least that's what I do every week with MySQL.
But Google will probably help you if there is a different method for SQL Server.