A dynamic URL is one that adds dynamic information to it in the form of a querystring, as an example. For instance, in this URL: http://www.mydomain.com?category=books is a dynamic URL. The problem with dynamic URLs is that search engines to not particular like them. So if you had many categories in the querystring in the example I gave you, they all look the same from the search engine's perspective. Not very good for SEO.
So how can we use dynamic URLs and still not have the disadvatage mentioned above? You use URL rewriting techniques, for example with an Apache web server you use .htaccess, and for IIS, you use URL Rewrite Module. What the rewrite does is take the first example, http://www.mydomain.com?category=books, we can rewrite the URL to show as http://www.mydomain.com/category/books/. From a URL perspective with regard to SEO, this is a much better and cleaner URL. It also looks nicer from a visitor's perspective because its easier to remember.
As opposed to dynamic urls, the static url or page means whose contents not often change.
Personally I never like dynamic URLs because they are too long and don't seem organized at all. Oh, and you just can't remember them. But a static URL is better since it is easy to remember and hence I think promoting it would be far easier than a dynamic one.
There is no difference between static urls and dynamic urls for SE purposes
dynamic urls are rewritten as static urls by mod_rewrite before the search engine is involved, user bot alike see only the static url
the bot knows it, the user knows it, everybody knows it except certain deficient persons who suggest one may be better than the other.
SE very obviously accept dynamic urls, why not look at a url returned from a google search, quite a few dynamic properties
craft the site enable mod_rewrite, and just do it.
Static means which never changes. Dynamic means which is always changing. Normally company websites are static because there is fixed contents and blogs/forums are dynamic as they have different upcoming contents. If you change your parmalinks structure of your static website then you are making dynamic urls unintensionally. So better stick with "Jorge" statement.