Could somebody give me a basic network and list how the OSI model was used, I would appreciated it????
I've studied on my own, in theory i know what it is, but I am clueless as to how I am suppose to apply it. This is what I know...
Layer 1: Physical layer
The physical layer defines all the electrical and physical specifications for devices. This includes the layout of pins, voltages, and cable specifications. Hubs and repeaters are physical-layer devices. The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are:
establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium.
participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users. For example, contention resolution and flow control.
modulation, or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. These are signals operating over the physical cabling -- copper and fibre optic, for example. SCSI operates at this level.
Layer 2: Data link layer
The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical layer. The addressing scheme is physical which means that the addresses (MAC address) are hard-coded into the network cards at the time of manufacture. The addressing scheme is flat. Note: The best known example of this is Ethernet. Other examples of data link protocols are HDLC and ADCCP for point-to-point or packet-switched networks and LLC and Aloha for local area networks. This is the layer at which bridges and switches operate. Connectivity is provided only among locally attached network nodes.
Layer 3: Network layer
The network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source to a destination via one or more networks while maintaining the quality of service requested by the Transport layer. The Network layer performs network routing, flow control, segmentation/desegmentation, and error control functions. The best known example of a layer 3 protocol is the Internet Protocol. Routers operate at this layer -- sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible (there also exist layer 3 (or IP) switches). This is a logical addressing scheme - values are chosen by the network engineer. The addressing scheme is hierarchical. This layer can be of least significance in case of Broadcasting Networking.
Layer 4: Transport layer
The transport layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users, thus relieving the upper layers from any concern with providing reliable and cost-effective data transfer. The transport layer controls the reliability of a given link. Some protocols are stateful and connection oriented. This means that the transport layer can keep track of the packets and retransmit those that fail. The best known example of a layer 4 protocol is TCP.
Layer 5: Session layer
The session layer provides the mechanism for managing the dialogue between end-user application processes (By dialog we mean that whose turn it is to transmit). It provides for either duplex or half-duplex operation and establishes checkpointing, adjournment, termination, and restart procedures (keeping a track so as to restart from the very same point where they had left in case of a crash). This layer is responsible for setting up and tearing down TCP/IP sessions.
Layer 6: Presentation layer
The presentation layer relieves the Application layer of concern regarding syntactical differences in data representation within the end-user systems. MIME encoding, data compression, encryption, and similar manipulation of the presentation of data is done at this layer. An example of a presentation service would be the conversion of an EBCDIC-coded text file to an ASCII-coded file or serializing objects and other data structures into and out of XML.
Layer 7: Application layer
The application layer interfaces directly to and performs common application services for the application processes. The common application services provide semantic conversion between associated application processes. Examples of common application services include the virtual file, virtual terminal (for example, Telnet), transfer and Manipulation protocol" (JTM, standard ISO/IEC 8832).