I have a Tecra 8100 laptop. It just started having the blue screen of death upon startup. I get the Welcome to Windows XP screen (before the XP login screen) and then it goes black and I next get the BSOD with IRQL_LESS_THAN_OR_EQUAL error. I can boot and run fine in safe mode and run almost everything (except I have no sound:) the PCMCIA wireless works: I'm on the internet (I'm using the machine now.) I can use it for hours (with a greatly reduced screen size, but otherwise, no problems.)

I'm wondering if it is bad RAM or a bad sound card. Or maybe a bad driver? The last thing that I did before the problem started was that I accepted and installed some Windows Update (I also tried rolling this back but it didn't fix the problem, obviously.) I also downloaded a debug tool from microsoft but it won't run in safe mode.
Any way to figure this out without buying new RAM or a new sound card and trying them? I don't really want to spend money on a 6 year-old machine. (Though it has been wonderful!)

I replaced the processor last summer (upgrading 500 MHz to 700 MHz) and ever since I have had trouble with the modem. (It doesn't work.) But I remember it was a cheesy little card with a flimsy connection and I'm guessing it's easy to knock it loose and I wonder if the sound card is similar?

Any advice appreciated!

if it runs in safe mode then i would say a bad driver - also you nearly always need to do a full reinstall of windows after a cpu or motherboard upgrade

and id like to add that you cant get new soundcards for laptops