What Michael suggests is one approach. Another is to install the android phone/tablet simulator (available from the google/android developer site), which will let you run android applications in a simulated natural environment. The main issue is that most android applications use Dalvik - a virtual machine that takes byte-code and iterprets it, just like the JVM for java. In fact, the source code IS java, but the Dalvik compiler generates different object code than a java compiler will, so java jar files will not run on android. If you can get a Dalvik byte-code interpretor to run on your system, then you should, in theory, be able to run any android application.
That last statement, and $5, will get you a nice latte at Starbucks... :-)