The question came from nowhere. I just wonder on how and why part – of the question. Write actual code for a compiler?! Nope, not yet. The question is general is all about the compiled programming languages. Any answers or related articles -- why are programming languages dissimilar even if they go after the similar compilation procedure?
Your question is confusing and suggests a misunderstanding about compilation. A programming language is the (usually textual) manifestation of a set of rules for specifying instructions to the computer. Because those rules are designed for human programmers, they're abstracted to a higher level and need to be converted into something the machine understands. This is compilation.
The programming language goes away during compilation. At that point the abstract instructions are translated into an intermediate language (such as Java's bytecode or even assembly language) or directly into machine code depending on how the compiler is designed.
So your question about differences in programming languages after compilation is nonsensical.
If software engineering does not cover compiler design (even the formulation was quite undecipherable), then it would mean compiler is not software. This is clearly contradiction, so the claim is wrong, compiler is a big program (even with current history of software engineering and huge computer power it is easier to tackle) which needs careful software engineering, even it has it's automatic components, which are taught in compiler design classes.
>>Why are programming languages dissimilar even if they go after the similar compilation procedure?
Maybe a simple answer is that, people weren't satisfied with the current programming language, hence tried to build a "stronger" and more expressive language; this caused the variation of tools to be created.
Why are programming languages dissimilar even if they go after the similar compilation procedure?
>>>elaborate on the compiler design part NOT on the Structure/Concept of Programming language side<<<
The question doesn't really make a lot of sense. Different compilers for the same programming language often have different compiler designs. Consider the many FORTRAN compilers that have been written over the years. I can assure you that a number of different design decisions were made by the different vendors. I've even seen radically different designs in assemblers.
Why are programming languages different?
Because we want them to be.
People become unsatisfied with what's already there, and think they can do better.