Well. Maybe you could start by writing some important unique content for your web site, stuff that people want to read. Then maybe you can optimize the different web page elements (Titles, Descriptions, headings etc.) for each webpage. That should get you started in the right direction.
i couldn't agree more with canadafred. relevant copy is important but don't stuff it. relevant and smart title + meta description. if you have a database, you should dynamize the tags + descr. and even the H1 H2 H3 s.
suppose you have a small client who has a static page BUT with excellent content about their service. what are some techniques you can use to optimize it ... OR would you still need to update content in the form of forum or blogs.
Also no one has mentioned relevant link exchanging ...