If you have a recovery partition, you may be able to fix it. In any case, you need to scan the disc for hardware failures (too many bad sectors). It may be that the disc itself is fubar (fouled up beyond all recovery).
I would recommend, if you have any installation CD of Windows or USB of any type. To reinstall your Windows on the drive itself, DO NOT FORMAT OR DELETE PARTITIONS, just select partition where your Windows is installed or was installed. After installation process, your old files (from older Windows) will be in "C:/Windows.old". You can then move them anywhere you want. If you have taken all your desired data, you can then delete the folder.